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UK Renewable Hydrogen Project to Use Food-Waste Biomethane (Int'l.)
IBMS Group,BayoTech
Date: 2021-06-02
In London, IBMS Group reports it will partner with Albuquerque, New Mexico-based BayoTech Inc. to launch the UK's first renewable hydrogen project using food waste to generate biomethane as a feedstock. The project will produce 1000kg per day and provide fuel for mobility projects in the London and Surrey region of the UK.

Using IBMS's food waste and biomethane expertise and BayoTech's modular SMR technology the partnership will create renewable hydrogen and high-grade fertiliser products from a multi-purpose eco facility. The project will produce 1,000 kilograms of renewable hydrogen per day to fuel zero-emission vehicles in London and Surrey.

Further phases of the project will see carbon capture introduced to take the project from carbon neutral to carbon negative. The system is due to be online by Q2 of 2022, following which the system will be deployed at multiple locations around the UK to create a national network of carbon negative hydrogen production facilities.

According to the release, regional hydrogen production and distribution reduces unnecessary costs, storage, and transport leading to a reduced carbon footprint overall when compared with traditional production models and electrolyser systems. (Source: IBMS Group, Website PR, 24 May, 2021) Contact: BayoTech, Steve Jones, VP Europe, 505-977-7954, www.bayotech.us, IBMS Group, Steve Sharratt, CEO, www.ibmsgroup.co.uk

More Low-Carbon Energy News IBMS Group,  BayoTech,  Renewable Hydrogen,  Biomethane,  


DRAX Building Biomass Pellet Plants in Arkansas (Ind. Report)
DRAX
Date: 2021-05-10
In the UK, Yorkshire-based woody biomass power producer DRAX Group reports construction is expected to get underway on the first of three new Arkansas "satellite" woody biomass pellet plants before the month end and the other two plants shortly thereafter.

Together, the new facilities will produce roughly 120,000 tpy of sustainable biomass pellets from sawmill and forestry dry waste.

DRAx will invest $40 million in the project. The company is aiming to be carbon negative by 2030. (Source: DRAX, PR, May, 2021) Contact: DRAX, Will Gardiner, CEO, +44 (0) 1757 618381, www.drax.com

More Low-Carbon Energy News DRAX,  Woody Biomass,  Wood Pellet,  


Carbon Terminology Refresher (Opinions, Editorials & Asides)
Carbon Emissions
Date: 2021-04-30
For greater clarity, the Fifth Estate has offered the following brief clarifications of the plethora of commonly used carbon emissions related terms:

  • Net Zero Energy -- There's two ways of looking at this. The first is based on simple math, and means a building, precinct, process or region generates as much energy within its own boundaries or site as it pulls in from elsewhere over a specific period -- most often a year. The other definition is a building or precinct or region that generates 100 pct of its own energy needs on site or within its boundaries.

  • Net Positive Energy -- When a building or precinct generates more energy than it uses and shares that energy through either a local microgrid or by sending it into the main grid, it becomes energy positive.

  • Carbon Negative -- Carbon negative is used for larger scales than individual buildings, such as precincts, regions, businesses or even entire nations. It means absorbing more carbon than all combined carbon emissions within the specific area or operation.

  • Carbon Neutral -- Carbon neutral is basically a balancing act where a building, business or region sequesters or offsets as much carbon as it emits.

  • Carbon Offsets -- All offsets are not created equal -- there are dirt-cheap offsets sloshing around the global carbon market from questionable projects in far-flung places. But not only are they scientifically and ethically questionable, they also will not meet the standards required for formal third-party carbon neutral certification. The best offsets deliver co-benefits beyond just sequestering carbon, such as improving biodiversity, increasing water quality or catchment protection, generating social benefits, local economic benefits or supporting Indigenous cultural practices and knowledge.

  • Operational Emissions -- Most carbon accounting undertaken for the purposes of carbon neutral certification focus on carbon emissions generated by the operation of a building, business or region. It's not just emissions from energy or fuel use though. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol defines three "scopes" or categories of carbon emissions as follows -- Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from "owned or controlled sources" such as a fleet of vehicles, a power plant or a manufacturing plant. Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from the generation of energy used within a building, plant or region. Scope 3 emissions are all the indirect emissions in a business, process or region's value chain both upstream and downstream. This would include something like methane emissions from waste sent to landfill, or the emissions from energy used to make the widgets that a business procures then retails.

  • Embodied Carbon -- Basically, almost everything we use from a smartphone to a building, has embodied carbon. Embodied or upfront carbon refers to the emissions released during the manufacture and transport of building materials, and the construction as well the end-of-life-phases of built assets. (Source: Fifth Estate Australia)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon,  Carbon Emissions,  Climate Change,  


  • Fuel a Greener Future -- Achieve Carbon Negative Transportation Today (Alt. Fuel Report Attached}
    NGVAmerica
    Date: 2021-02-24
    In Washington, Natural Gas Vehicles for America (NGVAmerica) has released its Fuel a Greener Future report detailing the significant environmental and economic benefits of renewable natural gas (RNG)-fueled fleeting.

    RNG-fueled medium- and heavy-duty vehicles are commercially available, proven, and affordable. Depending on the feedstock, they can be carbon-free or carbon negative. Commercial pickups and vans, refuse trucks, transit buses, and Class 8 short haul freight trucks cost-effectively run on RNG, or biogas produced from methane.

    Download the Fuel a Greener Future -- Achieve Carbon Negative Transportation Today report HERE.

    NGVAmerica is a national organization dedicated to the development of a growing, profitable, and sustainable market for vehicles powered by natural gas or biomethane.

    NGVAmerica represents more than 200 companies, environmental groups, and government organizations interested in the promotion and use of natural gas and biomethane as transportation fuels. NGVAmerica member companies are those that produce, distribute, and market natural gas and biomethane across the country; manufacture and service natural gas vehicles, engines, and equipment; and operate fleets powered by clean-burning gaseous fuels, according to the organization's website. (Source: NGVAmerica, 16 Feb., 2021) Contact: NGVAmerica, Dan Gage, Pres., (202) 824-7360, www.ngvamerica.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News lternative Fuel ,  


    Smithfield Foods Aims for Carbon Negative by 2030 (Ind. Report)
    Smithfield Foods
    Date: 2020-09-09
    Virginia-based pork producer Smithfield Foods has pledged to become the first major protein company to go carbon negative through carbon reduction infinitive s at its 40 company-owned facilities in the U.S. by 2030 without purchasing carbon credits to offset emissions.

    . In 2016, the company announced plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 25 pct by 2025 across its entire supply chain and in 2017 launched Smithfield Renewables that united its carbon reduction and renewable energy efforts. The company is known for its anaerobic digestion biogas efforts to turn methane from hog manure into renewable natural gas, The company will also work to sequester more carbon in farmlands and natural ecosystems. It also intends to add more wind and solar energy; streamline distribution routes to reduce miles traveled; reduce energy consumption for refrigeration, lighting and equipment. (Smithfield Foods, PR, 8 Sept., 2020) Contact: Smithfield Foods, Kenneth M. Sullivan, Pres., CEO, Lisa Martin, (757) 365-1980, lvmartin@smithfield.com, www.smithfield.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Smithfield Foods,  Carbon Emissions,  Carbon Negative,  Biogas,  Methane,  Anaerobic Digestion,  


    Clariant, Chemtex to Collaborate on China Biofuels (Int'l. Report)
    Clariant, Chemtex
    Date: 2020-08-19
    Muttenz, Switzerland-based Clariant AG is reporting a strategic partnership with Chemtex Global Corp. to market and sell Clariant's Sunliquid technology licenses, as well as services and supplies for advanced biofuel plants in China.

    In 2017, the State Council of PRC endorsed a new strategic plan to utilize bioethanol converted from agricultural residue as gasoline for motor vehicles. Under the nationwide blending mandate proposed, all gasoline used for motor vehicles will need to contain bioethanol as an additive. Clariant, with its innovative sunliquid technology that offers an efficient process for converting agricultural residues into low-emission, carbon negative biofuel, is fully supporting the rollout of the mandate.

    The combined offerings of Clariant and Chemtex will provide a comprehensive package of 2G ethanol technology licenses and Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC) services, enabling customers in China to successfully design, build and operate their own full-scale plants. While Clariant will offer its sunliquid technology licenses, technical services and the supply of starter cultures from its proprietary enzyme and yeast platform, Chemtex will be responsible for engineering, procurement and construction. (Source: Clariant, PR, Chemical Engineering, Aug., 2020) Contact: Clariant, Christian Librera, Head of Business Line Biofuels and Derivatives, Stefanie Nehlsen, Global Trade Media Relations, +41 61 469 63 63, www.clariant.com; Chemtex, Sean Ma, CEO, www.chemtex.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Sunliquid,  Clariant,  Chemtex ,  Biofuel,  


    $1.3Bn Aussie AgWaste-to-Fuels Project Construction Ready (Int'l.)
    AgBioEn
    Date: 2020-06-22
    In the Land Down Under, Melbourne-based AgBioEn reports it is set to break ground on its $1.35 billion agricultural waste-to-energy and Biofuels facility at Katunga in Victoria state. The plant will be the first of its kind in Australia converting organic waste materials such as cereal straw into electricity, renewable diesel and jet fuel, and fertilizer.The plant is expected to begin production before the end of 2021.

    AgBioEn is Australia's first fully integrated carbon negative renewable energy and fuels project using world-class technology to produce cleaner and greener renewable energy and liquid fuels, according to the company website. (Source: AgBioEn, PR, Website, 22 June, 2020) Contact: AgBioEn, Lubey Lozevski, Project Director, 03 9111 9919, team@agbioen.com.au, www.agbioen.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News AgWaste-to-Fuel news,  Biofuel news,  


    DRAX Nears Coal to Woody Biomass Switchover (Int'l. Report)
    DRAX
    Date: 2020-06-01
    Situated in Yorkshire, northern England, the Drax Group power plant will complete its switch next year after embarking on a journey almost a decade ago to use organic matter alongside the fossil fuel to slash carbon emissions. The Drax operation, providing four million households with electricity, sees CO2 emitted from burnt wood captured by newly planted trees.

    Four of the plant's six reactors use wood pellets and a carbon-capture system, while Drax intends on becoming carbon negative by 2030, by removing more CO2 from the atmosphere than it emits. Drax adds that the switch, in line with UK government policy to ban the use of coal by 2025, allows it to keep the plant running and maintain 900 jobs. (Source: DRAX, France24, 30 May, 2020) Contact: DRAX, Will Gardiner, CEO, +44 0 1757 618381, www.draxpower.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News DRAX,  Woody Biomass,  


    Carbon Terminology Refresher (Opinions, Editorials & Asides)
    Carbon Emissions
    Date: 2020-03-16
    From the Land Down Under, The Fifth Estate has offered the following brief clarifications of the plethora of commonly used carbon emissions related terms:
  • Net Zero Energy -- There's two ways of looking at this. The first is based on simple math, and means a building, precinct, process or region generates as much energy within its own boundaries or site as it pulls in from elsewhere over a specific period -- most often a year. The other definition is a building or precinct or region that generates 100 per cent of its own energy needs on site or within its boundaries.

  • Net Positive Energy -- When a building or precinct generates more energy than it uses and shares that energy through either a local microgrid or by sending it into the main grid, it becomes energy positive.

  • Carbon Negative -- Carbon negative is used for larger scales than individual buildings, such as precincts, regions, businesses or even entire nations. It means absorbing more carbon than all combined carbon emissions within the specific area or operation.

  • Carbon Neutral -- Carbon neutral is basically a balancing act where a building, business or region sequesters or offsets as much carbon as it emits.

  • Carbon Offsets -- All offsets are not created equal -- there are dirt-cheap offsets sloshing around the global carbon market from questionable projects in far-flung places. But not only are they scientifically and ethically questionable, they also will not meet the standards required for formal third-party carbon neutral certification. The best offsets deliver co-benefits beyond just sequestering carbon, such as improving biodiversity, increasing water quality or catchment protection, generating social benefits, local economic benefits or supporting Indigenous cultural practices and knowledge.

  • Operational Emissions -- Most carbon accounting undertaken for the purposes of carbon neutral certification focus on carbon emissions generated by the operation of a building, business or region. It's not just emissions from energy or fuel use though. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol defines three "scopes" or categories of carbon emissions as follows -- Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from "owned or controlled sources" such as a fleet of vehicles, a power plant or a manufacturing plant. Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from the generation of energy used within a building, plant or region. Scope 3 emissions are all the indirect emissions in a business, process or region's value chain both upstream and downstream. This would include something like methane emissions from waste sent to landfill, or the emissions from energy used to make the widgets that a business procures then retails.

  • Embodied Carbon -- Basically, almost everything we use from a smartphone to a building, has embodied carbon. Embodied or upfront carbon refers to the emissions released during the manufacture and transport of building materials, and the construction as well the end-of-life-phases of built assets. (Source: Fifth Estate Australia, Mar, 2020)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon,  Carbon Emissions,  


  • Net-Zero and Beyond -- What Role for Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage? (Int'l., Ind. Report Attached)
    Chatham House
    Date: 2020-02-03
    Further to our 23rd Feb., 2017 Chatham House, biomass and climate change report coverage, according to Net-Zero and Beyond -- What Role for Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage?, new report from the London-headquartered NGO Chatham House, the UK Government is over-prioritizing carbon capture, usage and storage (CCUS) and biomass in its net-zero plans and failing to account for the impact these technologies could have on land use.

    The potential unintended consequences of scaling up biomass energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS} in the UK and assesses the extent to which the technologies could deliver true and sustainable decarbonisation to the energy sector.

    BECCS has received a swathe of Government support and media coverage in recent times, both in the build-up to the ratification of the UK's 2050 net-zero goal, and after its implementation. Supporters of the technologies point out that biomass, unlike gas or other fossil fuels, is renewable, and that it is produces less emissions when burned. If these emissions can be captured for storage and reuse, the process can become carbon neutral or even carbon negative, firms including Drax have claimed.

    The report, however, warns that BECCS is "no silver bullet" for a net-zero energy sector. It claims that there has not been enough research into the likely energy output of BECCS or the environmental impacts of scaling up biomass supply chains, making it difficult to determine whether BECCS systems can be carbon-neutral across the life cycle.

    According to the report, deployment of BECCS at the scales assumed by the UK's modelling, on a global scale, would consume land equivalent to that currently accounted for by cropland. This could pose problems for food security, result in biodiversity loss and hamper plans to re-assess land-use in line with net-zero, Chatham House concludes. Chatham House claims that failures to account for biomass supply chain emissions undermine the assumption that BECCS systems are inherently carbon-neutral and is accordingly calling for stricter sustainability requirements for biomass feedstock and urging the Government to prioritise decarbonisation across carbon-intensive sectors, reshape its land-use strategies to ensure BECCS decisions are made after full considerations of all alternatives, both technology-based and nature-based.

    Download the report HERE. (Source: Chatham House, edie news, February 2020) Contact: Chatham House, Royal Institute of International Affairs, +44 (0) 20 7957 5710, contact@chathamhouse.org, www.chathamhouse.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News BECCS,  Chatham House,  Carbon Emissions,  Biomass,  Bioenergy,  


    Stockholm Planning Carbon-Negative District Heating (Int'l.)
    Stockholm Exergi,Fortum
    Date: 2020-01-29
    In Sweden, Stockholm Exergi, a joint venture between Helsinki, Finnish utility Fortum Oyi and the city of Stockholm, reports it is looking to make Swedish capital's district heating the world's first to become carbon negative.

    To that end, the company this spring will close its last coal-fired boiler and has replaced most of its coal-based production with biofuels. The company is also investigating the implementation of carbon capture systems to achieve a positive carbon footprint by 2040.

    Fortum Oyi is also testing carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Oslo at its joint venture Fortum Oslo Varme. Both the Stockholm and Oslo projects are partnering with the Northern Lights initiative, which is studying carbon storage in the bedrock of the North Sea. (Source: Stockholm Exergi, Recharge, 28 Jan., 2020) Contact: Stockholm Exergi, www.stockholmexergi.se; Fortum Oyi, www3.fortum.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Fortum,  Carbon Negative,  Carbon Emissions,  Stockholm,  


    AstraZeneca Investing $1Bn in CO2, Climate Change Fight (Int'l.)
    AstraZeneca
    Date: 2020-01-24
    Cambridge, UK-based British-Swedish pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca reports it will invest $1 billion to reach zero carbon emissions across its global operations by 2025, and ensure its entire value chain is carbon negative by 2030 -- as outlined in the company's just released Ambition Zero Carbonstrategy.

    To that end, AstraZeneca plans to cut carbon emissions to net-zero emissions within its own operations without relying on offset schemes, use 100 pct renewable energy, and reduce total energy consumption by 10 pct from a 2015 base, all by 2025. The pharmaceuticals maker is also planning a 50,000,000 tree reforestation initiative named AZ Forest which will launch in Australis this February. (Source: AstraZeneka, PR, BusinessGreen, 20 Jan., 2020) Contact: AstraZeneca, Pascal Soirot, CEO, +44 (0)20 3749 5000, www.astrazeneka.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Net-Zero Carbon Emissions,  Reforestation,  Carbon Offsets,  


    Danes Developing Shipboard DecarbonICE CCS System (Int'l.)
    CCS
    Date: 2019-12-04
    A group of world leading maritime shipping companies and ship builders, including NYK, Sovcomflot, DSM and others, are reported to have joined forces with the KĂžbenhavn, Denmark-based Maritime Development Center to develop DecarbonICE, an on-board carbon capture and storage (CCS)solution.

    The DecarbonICE concept captures ship exhaust CO2 and other GHGs in a cryogenic process and turns it into dry ice. Proven offshore technology is then applied during normal ship operations to transport the dry ice into the seafloor sediments for permanent sequestration as liquid CO2 and CO2 hydrate.

    In combination with future carbon neutral fuels like biofuels and electro fuels, the DecarbonICE technology can create carbon negative shipping and thus contribute to atmospheric carbon reduction at a significantly lower cost than shore-based CCS. capture.

    The shipping industry is looking for carbon free solutions to achieve the IMO 2050 target of a 50 pct CO2 emissions reduction compared to the 2008 level. (Source: Maritime Development Center, Port News, 1 Dec., 2019) Contact: Maritime Development Center, +45 33 33 74 88, www.mdc.center

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Carbon Capture & Storage,  CO2,  Maritime Emissions,  IMO,  


    FuelCell Energy Touts 9Mn MWh of Power Generation (Ind. Report)
    FuelCell Energy
    Date: 2019-08-14
    Danbury, Conn.-based fuel cell power and energy storage specialist FuelCell Energy, Inc. reports more than 9 million MWh having been generated by SureSource™ fuel cell power plants globally since the first commercial installation.

    SureSource™ fuel cells are a clean energy solution for the need for baseload power, as power is made continuously, positioning them as a perfect complement to the intermittent power sources of wind and solar.

    The company's SureSource™ plants are currently installed and operating on three continents, with many owned by leading utility and industrial companies. Presently, ten U.S. states and Puerto Rico have classified stationary fuel cells in the highest tier of clean power generation due to the high efficiency and resultant low carbon emissions and negligible NOx and particulate matter typical of other combustion sources of baseload power. Fuel Cells are usually classified as carbon-neutral, or in some cases carbon negative, by regulatory authorities due to the renewable nature of the biogas fuel source. (Source: Fuel Cell Energy Inc., PR, Newswire, Street Insider, 5 Aug., 2019) Contact: Fuel Cell Energy, Jennifer Arasimowicz, Interim President, 203-825-6000, info@fce.com, www.fuelcellenergy.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News FuelCell Energy,  Energy Storage,  


    DRAX Plan Said to Threaten UK Emissions Target Success (Int'l)
    ClientEarth,DRAX
    Date: 2019-01-30
    In the UK, London-headquartered environmental law specialist ClientEarth is warning DRAX Powers' planned gas plant in Selby, North Yorkshire would produce 75 pct of the country's entire power sector emissions budget.

    The DRAX proposal for four combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) was warranted to replace its existing two coal-fired units ahead of the government's proposed coal phase-out in 2025. However,ClientEarth's assessment of the DRAX plans noted the project's scale, high emissions intensity and expected long operating life combined make it a "significant" threat to the UK achieving its carbon targets. ClientEarth also noted "DRAX has failed to prove why adding so much new large-scale fossil fuel power is necessary given existing and planned capacity. It has also failed to assess the project's full climate impact, at the precise time when the UK needs to rapidly decarbonize."

    The UK government estimates the UK will need 6GW of new gas power generation capacity through to 2035. Approving DRAX project would take this to 18GW -- three times the government's estimates.

    As previously reported, Drax announced that it is to pilot the first bioenergy carbon capture storage (BECCS) project of its kind in Europe which could make the renewable electricity produced at its North Yorkshire power station carbon negative. DRAX partnered with Leeds, UK-based C-Capture who invested £400,000 in what could be the first of several pilot projects undertaken at DRAX. (Source: DRAX, Air Quality News, Jan., 2019) Contact: ClientEarth, Sam Hunter Jones, Jon Bennett, +44 (0) 303 050 5935, jbennett@clientearth.org, www.clientearth.org; DRAX, Will Gardiner, CEO, +44 0 1757 618381, www.draxpower.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News DRAX,  Biomass,  Carbon Emissions,  


    DRAX Woody Biomass Power Plant CCS Pilot Underway (Int'l. Report)
    DRAX
    Date: 2018-11-28
    Further to our August 20th coverage, in the UK DRAX Energy reports it has begun work on a pilot project to capture and store carbon dioxide emissions at its biomass plant in North Yorkshire. The facility burns woody sawdust pellets to operate the world's first carbon negative power station, according to DRAX.

    The UK aims to slash its greenhouse gas emissions by 80 pct compared with 1990 levels by 2050. (Source: DRAX, Investing.com, 26 Nov., 2018))Contact: DRAX Power, Andy Koss, CEO, +44 0 1757 618381, www.draxpower.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News DRAX,  CCS,  Carbon Storage,  CO2,  Woody Biomass,  


    UM Initiative Aims to Convert GHGs into Profitable Products (R&D)
    University of Michigan,CO2 Sciences
    Date: 2018-08-13
    In Ann Arbor, the University of Michigan is touting its Global CO2 Initiative aimed at removing carbon dioxide from the air and turning it into useful products. The initiative is funded with up to $4.5 million -- a maximum of $2.5 million in seed funding from Michigan Engineering and an additional $2 million in other fundraising commitments. The initiative aims to reduce the equivalent of 10 pct of current atmospheric CO2 emissions annually by 2030 -- approximately 4 gigatons that could potentially be converted into concrete and other construction materials, fuels, and carbon fiber.

    The Global CO2 Initiative combines the assets of the San Francisco nonprofit CO2 Sciences with what was previously the Beyond Carbon Neutral initiative at the U-M Energy Institute. While both endeavors aimed to accelerate the rate at which carbon dioxide is removed from the air, CO2 Sciences worked to find uses for that extracted greenhouse gas. The board of CO2 Sciences elected to donate its assets to U-M in order to leverage its resources and ecosystem.

    The initiative aims to drive the development of technologies that can capture and convert CO2 into a commodity -- providing commercial incentives to lower the concentration in the atmosphere.

    As a first step, the initiative will deploy, for free download, a first-of-its-kind toolkit that establishes a common model for assessing the climate and economic impacts of different technologies in the carbon conversion industry, as well as of CO2-based products themselves. The Life Cycle Analysis and Techno-Economic Analysis Toolkit (LCA/TEA) was developed in collaboration with institutions from around the world and to evaluate technologies for a global market. It is designed to help researchers and industry evaluate which carbon removal approaches or carbon-based products are most promising. The toolkit's initial partners include: the Technical University of Berlin, the University of Sheffield, RWTH Aachen and the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies in Potsdam. U-M is continuing to expand funding commitments and research partners for this initiative. The $2.5 million in seed funding from Michigan Engineering is part of its new Blue Sky Initiative designed to encourage daring research with high potential for societal impact. (Source: University of Michigan, Michigan News, 8 Aug., 2018) Contact: University of Michigan, Volker Sick, Global CO2 Initiative Lead, www.globalco2initiative.org; CO2 Sciences, www.co2science.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News GHGs,  Carbon Emissions,  Carbon Negative,  Carbon Neutral,  

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