Fuel alcohol capacity fell 3 MMgy, from 17.396 billion gallons in May to 17.393 billion gallons in June while biodiesel production capacity held steady at 2.428 billion gpy. Other biofuels -- renewable diesel, renewable heating oil, renewable jet fuel, renewable naphtha, renewable gasoline -- dropped to 911 MMgy in June, down 60 MMgy when compared to the 971 MMgy reported for May.
According to the EIA data, 24.64 billion pounds of corn went to biofuel production in June, down from 25.136 billion pounds in May while grain sorghum feedstock increased from 12 million pounds in May to 36 million pounds in June.
The consumption of soybean oil feedstock fell to 663 million pounds, down from 788 million in June. The consumption of corn oil feedstock was also down, at 241 million pounds in June, compared to 257 million pounds in May.
Details on Monthly Biofuels Capacity and Feedstocks Update (31 Aug., 2021)
(Source: US EIA, Sept., 2021) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News US EIA, Ethanol Biofuel, Biodiesel, Biofuel Feedstock,
Average onshore wind construction costs for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), which manages about 90 pct of Texas's electric load, totaled $1,114/kW in 2019 and were less expensive than the U.S. average for that year. ERCOT installed the most wind capacity of any U.S. electricity market region in 2019 (3.5 GW) and also had the highest total wind capacity (26 GW) as of December 2019. Favorable market conditions, wholesale prices, and geographic advantages contribute to lower construction costs in ERCOT.
In 2019, the average construction cost for wind capacity was lower in ERCOT than it was in neighboring market regions Southwest Power Pool (SPP) and Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO). The average construction cost for wind in SPP, which manages the electric grid in all or parts of 14 states including northwest Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, was $1,426/kW. In MISO, which covers the Midwest United States as well as parts of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana, the average construction cost for wind in 2019 was $1,637/kW. Average construction costs in both SPP and MISO were above the U.S. average in 2019.
All three market regions -- ERCOT, SPP, and MISO -- are in the central US "Wind Belt" where some of the country's best wind resources and a large share of U.S. wind capacity are located. Wind Belt states were among the least expensive in the U.S. for constructing wind generating capacity from 2013 to 2019.
Like many states in the Wind Belt, California had significant wind capacity (5.9 GW) at the end of 2019. However, California had relatively high average wind plant construction costs, averaging $2,310/kW for new wind installations between 2013 and 2019. The high costs could be driven by a variety of factors, including state policies and regulations, land use restrictions, and difficulties in developing wind projects.
In 2020, U.S. electricity generation from coal in all sectors declined 20 pct from 2019, while renewables, including small-scale solar, increased 9 pct. Wind, currently the most prevalent source of renewable electricity in the U.S., grew 14 pct in 2020 from 2019. Utility-scale solar generation increased 26 pct , and small-scale solar grew 19 pct. (Source: US EIA, PR, 28 July, 2021) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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EIA data shows that biofuels, including fuel ethanol, biodiesel and other renewable fuels, accounted for approximately 17 percent of U.S. renewable energy consumption in 2020, despite an 11 percent drop in biofuel consumption caused by market factors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
Wood and waste energy, wood pellets, and biomass waste from landfills accounted for about 22 pct of U.S. renewable energy consumption in 2019.
(Source: U.S. EIA, Monthly Energy Review, 16 June, 2021) Contact: IS EIA, www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=48396, www.eia.gov
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EIA notes nearly 60 pct of the U.S. biomass-based diesel imports in 2020 was renewable diesel, primarily from Singapore since 2015. Renewable diesel imports increased to a record-high level of more than 18,000 bpd in 2020 and biodiesel jumped to more than 12,800 bpd. Imports from Canada accounted for the majority of the U.S. biodiesel imports in 2020 at 7,500 bpd -- up 47 pct from 2019. (Source: US EIA, May, 2021)Contact: EIA, www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo
More Low-Carbon Energy News Biodiesel, Biofuel, Alternative Fuel, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Renewable Diesel,
A Successful Farming report notes the U.S. Midwest, which produces more ethanol than any other region in the country, saw its production drop to 868,000 bpd from day from 895,000 bpd from the previous week and the lowest output level since late September. The East Coast and Gulf Coast regions stayed at an average of 12,000 bpd while the Rocky Mountain and West Coast production levels were unchanged at 9,000 bpd, on average, according to the EIA. Stockpiles increased to 24.297 million barrels in the seven days ending on February 12.
In other ethanol industry news, the US EPA has announced all 16 "hardship waiver" exemption petitions under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) from 2020 are still pending. In total, 66 petitions that date back as far as 2011 are still pending.
As previously noted, "hardship waivers" were intended for refineries producing 75,000 bpd or less and suffered "disproportionate economic hardship" from the costs of RFS compliance. The waiver frees the refineries from an obligation to provide the EPA with biofuels credits proving compliance. (Source: US EIA, Ag Central News, 20 Feb., 2021) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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The survey notes that from the mid-1980s through 2010, coal was the leading source of U.S. fossil fuel production, but coal production has since been surpassed by dry natural gas (in 2011) and by crude oil (in 2015). In 2020, the U.S. produced twice as much energy from crude oil (24 quadrillion Btu) than coal (11 quadrillion Btu) and three times as much energy from natural gas (35 quadrillion Btu).
According to the EIA forecast U.S. coal production fell by an estimated 24 pct in 2020, but will increase by 12 pct in 2021 and another 4 pct in 2022 -- about 90 pct of which will be used for electric power production. The EIA also forecasts increases in natural gas prices will reduce natural gas consumption for electricity generation, which will result in an increased share for coal, and to a lesser extent, an increased share for renewables in the electricity generation mix.
EIA estimates that U.S. NGPL production increased by 7 pct in 2020. Newly commissioned, more efficient natural gas processing plants supported growth in NGPL production even though natural gas production declined. EIA expects domestic NGPL production to increase by 2 pct in 2021 and by 7 pct in 2022. (Source: US EIA, 15 Jan., 2021) Contact: US EIA January 2021 Short-Term Energy Outlook, www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo
More Low-Carbon Energy News U.S. EIA, Fossil Fuel, Coal, Natural Gas,
Solar PV -- Developers and plant owners expect the addition of utility-scale solar capacity to set a new record by adding 15.4 GW of capacity to the grid in 2021. This new capacity will surpass 2020's nearly 12 GW increase, based on reported additions through October (6.0 GW) and scheduled additions for the last two months of 2020 (5.7 GW). More than half of the new utility-scale solar PV capacity is planned for four states -- Texas (28 pct), Nevada (9 pct), California (9 pct), and North Carolina (7 pct) and an additional 4.1 GW of small-scale solar PV capacity to enter service by the end of 2021.
Wind -- Another 12.2 GW of wind capacity is scheduled to come online in 2021. Last year, 21 GW of wind came online, based on reported additions through October (6.0 GW) and planned additions in November and December (14.9 GW). Texas and Oklahoma account for more than half of the 2021 wind capacity additions. The largest wind project coming online in 2021 will be the 999-MW Traverse wind farm in Oklahoma. The 12-MW Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind pilot project off the coast of Virginia Beach, is also scheduled to start commercial operation in early 2021.
Natural gas -- For 2021, planned natural gas capacity additions are reported at 6.6 GW. Combined-cycle generators account for 3.9 GW, and combustion-turbine generators account for 2.6 GW. More than 70 pct of these planned additions are in Texas, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.
Battery storage -- EIA expects the capacity of utility-scale battery storage to more than quadruple; 4.3 GW of battery power capacity additions are slated to come online by the end of 2021. The rapid growth of renewables is a major driver in the expansion of battery capacity because battery storage systems are increasingly paired with renewables. The world's largest solar-powered battery (409 MW) is under construction at Manatee Solar Energy Center in Florida; the battery is scheduled to be operational by late 2021. (Source: US EIA, 11 Jan., 2021)Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Information Administration, Renewable Energy,
In 2019, New York State generated 39.4 million MWh of renewable electricity for 30 pct of the state's total electric power generation. Hydroelectricity generated 31 million MWh (78 pct) of the state's power followed wind with 4.5 million MWh (11 pct) and solar solar energy at 2.4 million MWh of electricity.
Download the EPA report details HERE.
(Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly, Nov., 2020) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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US electric power sector emissions accounted for roughly one-third of US energy-related CO2 emissions in 2019 -- emissions from coal fell by 15 pct in 2019, and emissions from natural gas increased by 7 pct. CO2 emissions from the industrial sector rose 1.1 pct and transportation sector emissions dropped by 0.2 pct.
More information on changes in energy-related CO2 emissions in 2019, as well as trends in emissions since 1990, is available in EIA's US Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2019 report HERE.
(Source: US EIA. Nov., 2020) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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Production in August came from 88 biodiesel plants totaling 2.5 billion gpy capacity. Approximately 73 pct of August's production was from plants located in the Midwest. 73 million gallons of August's production was sold as B100 and 96 million gallons was blended with petroleum diesel.
Approximately 1.239 billion pounds of feedstock was used to produce biodiesel in August, including 745 million pounds of soybean oil, 148 million pounds of corn oil, 44 million pounds of tallow, 55 million bounds of white grease, 80 million pounds of yellow grease, and 26 million pounds of other recycled feedstocks.
Ending stocks of B100 were at 46 million gallons in August, down from 53 million gallons in July. Ending stocks of B100 were at 45 million gallons in August 2019, according to the EIA report.
(Source: US EIA, Website Report, 30 Oct., 2020) Contact: US EIA, www,eia.gov
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In the electric power sector, biomass expected to be used to generate 27.9 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity this year, including 15.6 billion kWh from waste biomass and 12.3 billion kWh from wood biomass. Generation from biomass reached 28.8 billion kWh in 2019, including 15.7 billion kWh from waste biomass and 13 billion kWh from wood biomass. In 2021, generation from biomass is expected to increase to 31.2 billion kWh, including 16.4 kWh from waste biomass and 14.9 billion kWh from wood biomass. The electric power sector is expected to consume 0.233 quadrillion Btu (quad) of waste biomass this year, down from 0.236 quad in 2019, but increasing to 0.244 quad in 2021. The sector consumed 0.211 quad of wood biomass in 2019, with consumption expected to fall to 0.2 quad in 2020, and increase to 0.241 quad in 2021.
In the electric power sector, biomass generating capacity was at 6,672 MW in 2019, including 3,945 MW of waste biomass capacity and 2,727 MW of wood biomass capacity. Capacity by the end of 2020 is expected to fall to 6,628 MW, including 3,902 MW of waste biomass capacity and 2,727 MW of wood biomass capacity. Biomass capacity is expected to reach 6,638 MW by the end of 2021, including 3,912 MW of waste biomass capacity and 2,727 MW of wood biomass capacity.
Daily ethanol production fell to an average of 926,000 for the week ending 11 Sept. In the Midwest, output dropped to 879,000 bpd on average, from 892,000 barrels a week earlier. West Coast production was down from 10,000 to 8,000 bpd while East Coast output increased was up from 12,000 to 13,000 bpd in the prior seven-day period and Gulf Coast production rose from 16,000 to 17,000 bpd. (Source: US EIA, 17 Sept., 2020) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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Together with hydropower, biomass, and geothermal, renewables provided 22.3 pct of total electrical output -- a 19.9 pct increase over the previous year. Renewables produced close to one-third more electricity than coal through June 2020.
Total electrical generation by all renewable energy sources combined rose by 16.3 pct, driven primarily by a 31.4 pct expansion by wind and an 18.1 pct increase in solar generation while biomass fell by 10 pct and geothermal power dipped by 1.5 pct. (Source: US EIA, Aug., 2020)
Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.php?t=epmt_es1a
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U.S. fuel ethanol production reached averaged 841,000 bpd the week ending June 12, up from an average of 837,000 bpd the previous week. Production was down 240,000 bpd when compared to the same week of 2019 and down 238,000 bpd when compared to the final week of February, before U.S. fuel markets started to be impacted by COVID-19.
Weekly ending stocks fell to 21.346 million barrels the week ending June 12, down from 21.802 million barrels the previous week. Weekly ending stocks were down 267,000 barrels when compared to the same week of 2019.
(Source: US EIA, 17 June, 2020)
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U.S. coal consumption, primarily for electric power generation, fell 15 pct in 2019 to the lowest level since 1964, while the use of energy from sources like wind and solar notched slightly higher, according to the EIA .
Total renewable energy consumption in the U.S. grew for the fourth year to a record-high 11.5 quadrillion Btu in 2019. Since 2015, the growth in U.S. renewable energy is almost entirely attributable to the use of wind and solar in the electric power sector. In 2019, electricity generation from wind surpassed hydro for the first time and is now the most-used source of renewable energy for electricity generation in the United States on an annual basis. (Source: BIC, US EIA, May, 2020)
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Additional reductions are expected in upcoming weeks as several plants are switching a portion of their production to sanitizers and/or slowing or idling production due primarily to the falling demand for fuel caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the EIA report says.
(Source: US EIA, 1 April, 2020)
Contact: Energy Information Administration, www.eia.gov
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In its annual energy outlook report, the EIA notes renewables are now growing faster as a source of power generation through 2050 as lower costs make them economically more competitive.
(Source: Energy Information Administration, Feb., 2020)
Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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Each renewable resource set record high generation outputs sometime during 2018. Wind power generated 30.2 million MWh in April, a new monthly high, while a combination of utility-scale solar photovoltaics and solar thermal made history in June with 7.8 million MWh, the EIA report shows. (Source: US EIA, Power Eng., Jan., 2020) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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The inventory notes that as of Q3, 2019, 41 states had at least one installed wind turbine. Texas had the most capacity installed, at 26.9 GW, followed by Iowa at 8.9 GW, Oklahoma at 8.1 GW, and Kansas at 6.2 GW.
The agency projects
another 14.3 GW of wind capacity will come online in 2020, bringing U.S. capacity to 122 GW. (Source: US EIA, Dec., 2019) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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In the short term, energy-related CO2 emissions are influenced by the weather, fuel prices and disruptions in electricity generation. In the long term, CO2 emissions are influenced by public policy, reduced costs and improved efficiencies of new technology, demand-side efficiency gains and economic trends, according to the report.
A major factor in recent reductions in the carbon intensity of electric generation in the U.S. is the reduced generation of electricity using coal while increasingly using natural gas. Natural gas emits less CO2 for the same amount of electricity generated, and non-carbon generation (including renewables), which do not emit the gas.
Between 2005 and 2018, EIA has calculated that cumulative U.S. C02 emissions reductions attributable specifically to shifts from coal to natural gas and to non-carbon generation totaled 4,621 million metric tons (MMmt). Of this total, 2,823 MMmt resulted from decreased use of coal and increased use of natural gas; 1,799 MMmt resulted from decreased use of coal and increased use of non-carbon generation sources.
Between 2005 and 2017, total U.S. electricity generation increased by almost 4 pct while related C02 emissions fell by 27 pct. During the same period, fossil fuel electricity generation declined by roughly 9 pct, and non-carbon electricity generation increased by 35 pct.
Download the U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2018 Report HERE. (Source: US Energy Information Administration, 14 Nov., 2019) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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The world spent about $2.6 trillion on renewable energy projects during the decade, over three times the amount spent from 2000 to 2009. Solar PV investments totaled around $1.3 trillion, and onshore and offshore wind investment totaled around $1 trillion. Globally, solar energy capacity increased by 638 GW between 2009 and 2019, while coal-fired capacity increased by 529 GW, wind capacity increased 487 GW, and natural gas capacity increased 436 GW. In 2018, $41 billion was invested in coal worldwide.
China's spending on renewable electricity was the highest in the world at $758 billion from 2000 to the first half of 2019. The US was second with $356 billion, followed by Japan at $202 billion. The European nations spent around $698 billion on wind, solar, and other renewable energy sources, with Germany and the UK spending the most. It is expected that 330 GW of new wind power capacity will come online over the next five years, driven primarily by onshore wind power projects in the US and China. Investments in renewable power capacity in 2018, however, dropped 38 pct in China and by 6 pct in the US, while rising 45 pct in Europe.
The report predicts that electric power demand for coal will fall to 17 pct of total generation by 2050. Moody's Investors Service predicts coal will represent 11 pct of total U.S. power generation by 2030 -- down from 27 pct in 2018. The over 50 pct drop in coal demand from utilities by 2030 implies that coal demand would decline by about 7 pct per year on average over the next 10 years.
Download the US EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2019 -- Projections to 2050 report
HERE. (Source: US EIA, Sept., 2019) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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The 2019 U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity Report shows 102 operating biodiesel plants with 2.6 billion gpy in biodiesel production capacity, or 167,000 bpd. More than half of the nation's biodiesel production capacity is in the Midwest region, led by Iowa, Missouri, and Illinois. Of the top 15 biodiesel-producing states, 9 are located in the Midwest.
U.S.biodiesel production topped 1.8 billion gallons (119,000 bpd) in 2018, implying a 72 pct utilization rate based on the nameplate capacity level recorded at the beginning of 2018.
In its latest Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), EIA forecasts that U.S. production of biodiesel will reach about 2.0 billion gallons (128,000 bpd) in 2019, resulting in 77 pct utilization of reported nameplate capacity as of January 1, 2019.
Respondents report the biodiesel production capacity data to EIA on Form EIA-22M, Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey, and EIA publishes the data in the Monthly Biodiesel Production Report. All entities that produce biodiesel that meets ASTM D 6751-07B specifications and is used for commercial purposes within the United States submit Form EIA-22M. Additional data collected on Form EIA-22M include production, sales, stock changes, and feed stock inputs to production. (Source: US EIA Release, Sept., 2019) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov/petroleum/ethanolcapacity
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Non-hydropower renewables provided 10 pct of electricity generation in 2018. Of that total, woody biomass is expected to generate 113,000 MWh per day of electricity this year, increasing to 115,000 MWh per day in 2020. Waste biomass is expected to be used to generate 57,000 MWh per day of electricity in both 2019 and 2020.
In the electric power sector, waste biomass is expected to be used to generate 48,000 MWh per day in both 2019 and 2020. Generation from wood biomass is expected to reach 37,000 MWh per day this year, increasing to 39,000 MWh per day in 2020. Across other sectors, waste biomass is expected to be used to generate 76,000 MWh per day in both 2019 and 2020, with wood biomass used to generate 9,000 MWh per day in both years.
The electric power sector is expected to consume 0.269 quadrillion Btu (quad) of waste biomass this year, increasing to 0.27 quad next year. The sector is also expected to consume 0.221 quad of wood biomass in 2019, increasing to 0.232 quad in 2020. The industrial sector is expected to consume 0.169 quad of waste biomass in both 2019 and 2020, along with 1.439 quad of wood biomass in 2019 and 1.401 quad of wood biomass in 2020. The commercial sector is expected to consume 0.044 quad of waste biomass and 0.084 quad of wood biomass in both 2019 and 2020, while the residential sector is expected to consume 0.492 quad of wood biomass this year, falling to 0.488 quad next year.
Across all sectors, waste biomass consumption is expected to reach 0.482 quad in 2019 and remain at that level into 2020. The consumption of wood biomass is expected to reach 2.238 quad this year, falling to 2.205 quad next year.
Biomass capacity in the electric power sector is expected to reach 7,071 MW by the end of this year, including 4,141 MW of waste biomass capacity and 2,930 MW of wood biomass capacity, falling to 7,052 MW by the end of 2020, including 4,080 MW of waste biomass capacity and 2,972 MW of wood biomass capacity.
Biomass capacity across other sectors is expected to reach 6,657 MW by the end of 2019, including 866 MW of waste biomass capacity and 5,791 MW of wood biomass capacity. Capacity is expected to fall slightly to 6,649 MW by the end of 2020, including 866 MW of waste biomass capacity and 5,784 MW of wood biomass capacity. (Source: US EIA, June, 2019)Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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Soybean oil is the most commonly used vegetable oil for biodiesel production, and inputs reached 7.1 billion pounds during the latest soybean oil marketing year which ran from Oct. 1, 2017, to Sept. 30, 2018.
Between marketing year 2010-2011 and marketing year 2017-2018, U.S. domestic biodiesel production grew from 700 million gpy to 1.8 billion gpy.
The production increase was largely driven by the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) biofuel blending mandate.
(Source: US EIA, Xinhua, 8 May, 2019)
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According to the EIA, at 33,000 bpd Brazil was the top market for US ethanol,
followed by Canada at approximately 23,000 bpd while India ranked third, receiving 10,000 bpd of US ethanol followed by South Korea and the Netherlands. (Source: US EIA, 25 April, 2019) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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A pending legal settlement in federal court could trigger the closure of the state's two largest coal-fired plants, principally owned and operated by Entergy Arkansas. The utility has opened solar arrays and announced plans for more in recent years, and would be required under the proposed settlement to invest in hundreds more megawatts of renewable energy in coming years. That settlement is being challenged before the Arkansas Public Service Commission.
The EIA ranked Arkansas 17th in the country in the production per capita of carbon dioxide -- about 20 metric tons per person.
At its highest point, Arkansas' carbon emissions from energy sources was at 69 million metric tons. That was 2014, a year before the state's use of coal-fired plants declined sharply.
(Source: US EIA, Arkansas OnLine, Arkansas Democrat Gazette, 3 Mar., 2019)Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov; Entergy Arkansas, www.entergy-arkansas.com
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The report also predicts net imports of biomass-based diesel will stay unchanged. Biomass-based diesel production -- excluding renewable diesel -- was about 120,000 bpd in 2018 and grows to 160,000 bpd in 2020. Total biomass-based diesel consumption will increase from an estimated 134,000 bpd in 2018 to 174,000 bpd in 2020.
Download the US EIA Biofuels: Ethanol and Biodiesel Explained report HERE.
Based on projections about trends in energy—from the amount of fossil fuels produced and sold, to the growth of renewable energy, coal is still projected to provide 17 pct of the United States' electricity in 2050. The EIA projections note that natural gas -- a fossil fuel that is less carbon-emitting than coal but still a problem for climate change -- will increase its share of US electricity production from 34 pct to 39 pct.
Download the EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2019 projects growing oil, natural gas, renewables production report
HERE. (Source: EIA, Jan., 2019) Contact: US EIA, www.eia.gov
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Administered by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), LCFS aims to incrementally decrease the carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel fuel by at least 10 pct by 2020 relative to a 2010 baseline.
Under the state's LCFS, petroleum refiners, gasoline and diesel importers, and transportation fuel wholesales are required to either produce low carbon fuels or purchase credits to demonstrate compliance. But while under the RFS, both biodiesel and renewable diesel meet a 50 pct GHG reduction threshold (and are eligible to generate biomass-based diesel RINs), LCFS uses a measurement called carbon intensity (CI).
Renewable diesel generates a large number of credits relative to other fuels because it has some of the largest lifecycle GHG reduction compared to other fuels. The total volume of renewable diesel LCFS credits exceeded ethanol credits for the first time this year, reaching about 870,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent during the second quarter.
(Source: US EIA, Agri-Pulse, 14 Nov., 2018)
Contact: CARB, Melanie Turner, Information Officer, (916) 322-2990, email@example.com, www.arb.ca.gov
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The EIA attributes this drop to a declining demand for energy, a move to renewable energy, an abundance of inexpensive natural gas and dropping coal consumption.
According to Union of Concerned Scientists President Kenneth Kimmell, "the trend is expected to continue despite President Donald Trump's efforts."