The southern jet stream is a strong wind that forms the southern hemisphere, especially in summer and weather patterns. By 2000, it had returned to its natural course. It moved south in Antarctica to the latitude of every decade, affecting the paths of storms and rains in South America, Africa, the Middle East, and Australia.
Previous research has proven that this is mainly due to ozone layer deficiency due to synthetic chemical compounds such as ozone damaging CFCs, and HCFCs, which are found in refrigerators, aerosols and other industrial processes were phased out in 1987. The study found that the Montreal Protocol has halted the southern route of the jet stream since the year 2000 and it may begin to change as the ozone layer starts to close. Dept. 2019 satellite imagery revealed that the annual peak of the ozone hole was 16.4 million square kilometres, the smallest since 1982.
Ozone restoration is not sufficient to normalize the Southern Hemisphere climate, as other industrial emissions, such as carbon dioxide and methane, are harmful to the environment. There is a battle between increasing CO2 and ozone recovery. That is why we see a decline. Previous studies have reported that ozone holes have a chimney effect that emits some heat from the atmosphere, which means the Antarctic is warmer than the North. (Source: NOAA Chemical Science Dept. tenreports, 28 Mar., 2020) Contact: NOAA Chemical Sciences, Antara Banerjee, Study Author, 303-497-6455, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.esrl.noaa.gov/csd
More Low-Carbon Energy News Montreal Protocol, Ozone Depletion, Climate Change, NOAA,
If fully supported by governments, the private sector and citizens, the Kigali Amendment will avoid up to 0.4 degrees C of global warming this century while continuing to protect the ozone layer. The amendment will substantively contribute to the goals of the COP15, Paris Climate Agreement.
The parties to the amendment have put in place practical arrangements for its implementation, including agreements on technologies for the destruction of HFCs and new data reporting requirements and tools. The amendment comes with provisions for capacity-building for developing countries, institutional strengthening and the development of national strategies to reduce HFCs and replace them with alternatives. Phasing down HFCs under the Kigali Amendment may also open a window to redesign refrigeration equipment that is more energy efficient, further increasing the climate gains.
Implementation of new targets set out in the amendment will be done in three phases, with a group of developed countries starting HFCs phase-down from 2019. Developing countries will follow with a freeze of HFCs consumption levels in 2024 and with a few countries freezing consumption in 2028.
Evidence presented in the latest Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion finds that the ozone layer in parts of the stratosphere has recovered at a rate of 1-3 pct per decade since 2000. At projected rates, Northern Hemisphere and mid-latitude ozone is scheduled to heal completely by the 2030s followed by the Southern Hemisphere in the 2050s and polar regions by 2060.
The UN Environment Ozone Secretariat is the Secretariat for the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The Secretariat facilitates and supports the parties to the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol and other stakeholders in implementing actions to protect and heal the ozone layer and contribute to climate change mitigation.
Download the Scientific Assessment of
Ozone Depletion: 2018 Executive Summary HERE. (Source: UN Environment Ozone Secretariat, World Meteorological Organization , UN Environment, 3 Dec., 2019) Contact: UN Environment Ozone Secretariat, https://ozone.unep.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News COP15, Paris Climate Agreement, Carbon Emissions, Montreal Protocol, HFCs, Ozone Depletion, Climate Change,
While CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances were phased out by the mid-1990s, the study notes that the Antarctic ozone hole -- first discovered in 1985 -- "is healing slowly" because the man-made substances that caused the hole in the first place "have 50 - 100 year lifetimes."
Accordingly, researchers believe that it could be several decades before the ozone hole is eliminated altogether.
(Source: NASA Goddard, Common Dreams, Jan., 2018)
Contact: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Susan Strahan, Atmospheric Scientist, (301) 286-8981, www.nasa.gov/goddard
More Low-Carbon Energy News Montreal Protocol, NASA, Ozone, GHG, Climate Change,
According to the EPA, an average grocery store can leak up to 1,000 pounds per year of refrigerant gas into the atmosphere, contributing to pollution and ozone depletion.
(Source: EPA, Valley News, 8 Oct., 2017)Contact: Hanover Co-op Food Stores, (603) 643-2667; EPA
GreenChill Partnership, www.epa.gov/greenchill
More Low-Carbon Energy News Refridgerant Gas, Carbon Emissions, Emissions Reductions,