Developed in a recent collaboration with researchers at the University of Saskatchewan (USask), the high-quality fuel gas mixture is made from crop and forestry residues, food waste, cattle manure, petroleum, and petrochemical waste.
Consisting of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, the syngas can be used as a cheaper alternative to fossil fuels, green diesel and other applications.
(Source: NASA, Gasworld, 24 April, 2020) Contact: NASA, www.nasa.gov; University of Saskatchewan, Sonil Nanda,Chemical and Biological Engineering Research Associate, Ajay Dalai, Canada Research Chair of Bio-Energy and Environmentally Friendly Chemical Processing, 306-966-4768, email@example.com, www.usask.ca
More Low-Carbon Energy News Syngas, NASA, Green Fuel, University of Saskatchewan, Ajay Dalai,
The program incorporates NASA satellite data into an desktop software program called RETScreen Expert. RETScreen , a clean energy management software program developed by the Canadian government in collaboration with several international partners, including NASA.
Most of the environmental parameters -- like temperature, humidity, and winds -- included in the RETScreen project is developed by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). Based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., its computer model and data assimilation techniques enhance NASA Earth observations from more than 20 NASA satellites and missions.
However, the key data parameter, solar irradiance, provides a long-term record of daily averaged solar variability up to within about a week of real time. This solar variability replicates ground-based measurements very well and can be used to do things like monitor solar photovoltaic panel performance and place solar panels for optimal exposure to sunlight.
Wind resources are also incorporated into the POWER models and have important uses for energy efficiency analysis, such as helping to better calculate heat losses from buildings.
(Source: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, April, 2020) Contact: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Paul Stackhouse, project manager, (301) 286-2000, www.nasa.gov › goddard
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA, Energy Efficiency,
"Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions, a major air pollutant, are closely linked to factory output and vehicles operating on the road. As both industry and transport come to a halt during this pandemic, NO2 emissions can be a good indicator of global economic activity -- and the changes are visible from space. These images from the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA), as well as satellite footage from NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), show a drastic decline in NO₂ emissions over recent months, particularly across Italy and China."
Download the Emissions Impact of Coronavirus Lockdowns images
HERE. (Source: European Space Agency, Visual Capitalist, 21 Mar., 2020) Contact: European Space Agency, +33 1 53 69 76 54, www.esa.int
More Low-Carbon Energy News European Space Agency, Carbon Emissions, Climate Change,
The attached Space-based Quantification of per capita CO2 Emissions from Cities report provides the first independent estimates of direct per capita CO2 emissions (E pc) from space-borne atmospheric CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) for a total 20 cities across multiple continents. The analysis accounts for the influence of meteorology on the satellite observations with an atmospheric model. The resultant upwind source region sampled by the satellite serves as an objective urban extent for aggregating emissions and population densities.
The study suggests that E pc declines as population densities increase, albeit the decrease in E pc is partially limited by the positive correlation between E pc and per capita gross domestic product.
Download the NASA Space-based Quantification of per capita CO2 Emissions from Cities study
HERE. (Source: NASA, IOP, Environmental Research Letters, Open Access, Feb.,2020) Contact: NASA, www.nasa.gov/oco2;
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 818-354-0307, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.jpl.nasa.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA, Carbon Emissions,
Norilsk, 186 miles inside the Arctic Circle, is home to Norilsk Nickel, the world's leading nickel and palladium producer. The company is reportedly implementing a major effort to deal with environmental issues and to slash SO2 emissions by 75 pct from 2015 levels by 2023.
The South African town of Kriel is the site of state-owned power utility Eskom's 2,850 MW Kriel Power Station and two other nearby coal-fired plants, as well a Sasol owned coal-to-liquid plant. Eskom operates a fleet of aging coal-fired plants and is reportedly struggling to meet its emissions targets.
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) South Africa is among the world's top 10 coal producers with an estimated 3.5 pct of the world's coal resources.
(Source: NASA, Voice of America, 20 Aug., 2019)
Contact: Greenpeace India, www.greenpeace.org/india/en; NASA, www.nasa.gov; Eskom, www.eskom.co.za
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA, Greenpeace, SO2, Eskom, Coal,
"During the past five years, ethanol has been the fastest-growing agricultural export. As more nations adopt policies for lower-emission vehicle fuels, domestically produced ethanol can provide an immediate solution for their goals. We assert that there is little justification for EPA to maintain such an outdated calculation that otherwise could be easily corrected with existing, available analysis -- and straightforwardly address an unnecessary obstacle to international trade," the Senators wrote.
"Peer-reviewed science conducted by the USDA has affirmed that U.S. ethanol lowers greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 39-43 pct versus gasoline. EPA has rejected all calls to update these calculations, instead using nearly 10-year-old data, which ignores the technological advancements in ethanol production", the Senators said.
The Senators called for the EPA to adopt the scientific model Greenhouse Gas & Regulated Emissions & Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) developed by the DOE Argonne National Laboratory, after studying 100 fuel production pathways and 85 vehicle systems to measure the life-cycle carbon emissions of vehicle fuels. More than 30,000 organizations worldwide use the updated GREET model, including the FAA, NASA, Ford and GM, BP and others. EPA does not use the updated model. (Source: Office of Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa),Feedstuffs, 25 June, 2019) Contact: Office of Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa), www.grassley.senate.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News EPA, Chuck Grassley, GHGs, Ethanol,
"Global warming is prominent throughout the North. Ergo, climate news doesn't get much worse (well, actually, it could, and will) than the collapse of permafrost in the Canadian High Arctic's extreme coldest region (where): 'Observed maximum thaw depths at our sites are already exceeding those projected to occur by 2090. The aforementioned study, from 2003-2016, found permafrost melt up to 240 pct more than previous years. In geological terms, that's like winning the Indy 500, hands down. That permafrost had been frozen solid for 'thousands of years.' Accordingly, scientists predicted the permafrost 'wouldn't melt for another 70 years.' Yet, the landscape has already collapsed by up to three feet.
"Bottom line, the top 25 pct of the Northern Hemisphere, where permafrost is ubiquitous, is coming apart at the seams, and climate scientists are behind the eight ball while America's politicians deny the legitimacy of science and openly spit on the underlying thesis of anthropogenic global warming. In point of fact, Farquharson's '70-yr too early permafrost collapse' makes the onset of RGW look like a dead-ringer, but when?
"There's no getting around the fact that ecosystems are collapsing. The evidence is too palpable to ignore. It's serious; it's deadly, and it could be too late to do much to stop it, other than a last-ditch WWII Marshall Plan Worldwide Consortium dedicated to converting the world to renewable energy, and forcing removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, yet, those solutions take years and years of planning, setup, construction, and billions upon billions of funding. It's not happening.
Meanwhile, carbon that has been trapped in and under permafrost over eons readies to escape to turbo-charge an already over-saturated turbo-charged climate. It's literally happening right now. The waiting room is already full. Farquharson's study proves it, and Alaska's permafrost carbon emissions that compete with U.S. commercial CO2 emissions prove it, as sled dogs wade through it."
(Source: Dissident Voice, Robert Hunziker, 21 June, 2019)
More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change, Global Warming,
The safe to handle green fuel, which features a mixture of hydroxyl ammonium nitrate and an oxidizer, was developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory in California. The new fuel also delivers almost 50 pct better performance than hydrazine, allowing a spacecraft to travel for a longer period of time even with minimal fuel onboard.
According to Sacramento-headquartered Aeorojet Rocketdyne, the company that developed the propulsion system for the GPIM, the company will focus on building similar systems that can cater the new green fuel. (Source: NASA, International Business Times, 11 June, 2019)
Contact: Aeorojet Rocketdyne, Fred Wilson, www.rocket.com; NASA, (818) 354-4321, www.jpl.nasa.gov, www.nasa.gov; SpaceX, www.spacex.com
More Low-Carbon Energy News Aeorojet Rocketdyne, NASA,
Forests can store large amounts of carbon and so monitoring photosynthesis is an accurate way to track global carbon levels and measure how much CO2 is being stored. For evergreen trees which remain green all year round, it’s challenging to measure photosynthesis and carbon uptake. In the new study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers found a way to use solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) emitted by evergreen trees to monitor seasonal changes in photosynthesis and GPP. SIF occurs when chlorophyll levels return from a dormant state, and a photon is emitted which produces a faint “glow” not visible to the naked eye. Satellites can now detect SIF glow, and the researchers used scanning spectrometers to measure SIF in an evergreen forest in Colorado. The team found that fluorescence was a reliable indicator of seasonal chlorophyll changes matching the same patterns found in deciduous forests. Having a way to monitor GPP in both evergreen and deciduous forests will help researchers understand how climate change is impacting forests over a large scale.
“Ultimately, measuring the small fluorescent glow from plants will allow us to see exactly timing and magnitude of carbon uptake from the terrestrial biosphere. This will help us understand how forests are responding to climate change and suggest how they might respond to future climate change,” said Troy Magney, research scientist of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a lead author of the study. (Source: University of Utah, earth.com, May, 2019)
More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2 Storage, Carbon Storage, Carbon Emissions,
More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2 Storage, Carbon Storage, Carbon Emissions,
More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2 Storage, Carbon Storage, Carbon Emissions,
In other Neste news, the effectiveness of Neste MY Renewable Jet Fuel in reducing black carbon emissions has been recognized in a competition organized by the Climate Leadership Coalition, the Bioenergy Association of Finland, the Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra, the Finnish Environment Institute, and the Central Association of Chimney Sweeps. According to NASA, renewable fuel has the potential to cut particulate emissions by up to 70 pct from aircraft engines.
(Source: Neste, Baltic News Network, May, 2019)
Contact: Neste, +358 10 458 4128, www.neste.com; Bioenergy Association of Finland, www.bioenergia.fi/English
More Low-Carbon Energy News Neste, Renewable Diesel, Alternative Fuel, Biodiesel,
The OCO-3 is designed to accurately measure the altering carbon cycle on Earth and how it will affect all its living inhabitants. The OCO-3 measurements can reduce the uncertainty of the natural fluxes of the global carbon budget, mainly due to anthropogenic emissions. The instrument can make nearly precise measurements at different times of the day due to its position in space. Scientists also aim to know how CO2 concentrations change throughout the day in various areas of the Earth.
The OCO-3's high-resolution spectrometers can also detect solar-induced fluorescence, a type of radiation emitted by plants. Plants only produce SIF during photosynthesis season, which is also the only time they absorb CO2.
The OCO-3 cost less than $100 million to construct and was developed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL)in California.
The OCO-3 is expected to launch prior to April 25 and is expected to continue for three years. (Source: JPL NASA, Tech Times, April 2019) Contact: NASA, (818) 354-4321, www.jpl.nasa.gov, www.nasa.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA, CO2, NASA JPL,
The Finnish capital has pledged to stop using coal for heating by the year 2029, as Finnish law prohibits using coal for the production of electricity and heat after this date. "The city feels it is sensible that an unsustainable fuel like coal is not replaced with another questionable fuel like biomass or nuclear", according to the mayor.
According to Helsinki city-owned power utility HELEN, half of its energy is currently produced with coal, but it plans to close its coal-fired Hanasaari power plant by the end of 2024.
The utility has constructed 114 MW of alternative energy production in the form of a new wood pellet-fired heating plant in Salmisaari, and has also installed several solar facilities. (Source: City of Helsinki, yle, 4 April, 2019)Contact: City of Helsinki, Mayor's Office,www.hel.fi/helsinki/en/administration/administration/.../mayors/mayor; HELEN, +358 9 6171, www.helen.fi/en
More Low-Carbon Energy News Helsinki, Coal, Climate Change,
"By using a specially developed Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and advanced process engineering techniques, Renovare Fuels' technology can efficiently turn biogas into middle distillate fuel. The feedstock is sourced locally to the site and classified as a waste product, so the production cycle is objectively carbon neutral," according to the company.
The abundance of waste products means that the production of the biodiesel promises a low-cost sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. Renovare Fuels believes that the fuel could be priced at under 50 UK pence per litre in a quantity that could reshape the energy sector.
Renovare Fuels' technology, which was developed at the University of South Florida in conjunction with NASA and the US DOE, was proved successful in converting biogas into usable diesel during a trial at a US landfill in 2017, according to the company.
(Source: Renovare, EngineerLive, 19 Feb., 2019) Contact: Renovare Fuels, Devin Walker, CTO, +44 (0) 20 3874 8111,
Fax +44 (0) 20 3874 8110, www.renovare-fuels.co.uk
More Low-Carbon Energy News Biodiesel, Renovare Fuels, Renewable Diesel, Landfill Gas, Fischer-Tropsch,
The new plant is slated to begin production in Q1 2019.
(Source: Pacific BioEnergy Corp., Biomass Mag., 6 Feb., 2019) Contact: Pacific BioEnergy, John Stirling, Pres., 604.602.1099,
604.602.1089 - fax, email@example.com, www.pacificbioenergy.ca; Skeena BioEnergy, Roger Keery, VP, Rick Harris, VP Sales & Marketing, www.skeenasawmills.com/bioenergy
More Low-Carbon Energy News Skeena Sawmills, Pacific BioEnergy, Wood Pellet, Woody Biomas,
The study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Access the Four Decades of Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Balance from
1979 - 2017 report
HERE. (Source: University of California Irvine, Climate Action, Jan., 2019) Contact: University of California, Irvine, Eric Rignot, Chair of Earth System Science, Report Lead Author, (949)824-3739,
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA, University of California Irvine , Climate Change, Global Warming,
The 180-MW project, to be known as the Coom Green Energy Park, has been granted regulatory approval.
(Source: Times of London, 6 Jan., 2019)
Coillte, www.coillte.ie; Brookfield Renewable Partners, (888) 327-2722, firstname.lastname@example.org, https://renewableops.brookfield.com
More Low-Carbon Energy News Brookfield Renewable, Wind, Energy STorage,
"(He) didn't read it."
"Is there climate change? Yeah. Will it go back like this, I mean will it change back? Probably."
"Well, I think we've (human activity) contributed, we certainly contribute, I mean, there's certain pollutants that go up and there's certain things that happen."
The report from NASA to the Environmental Protection Agency is the most comprehensive and up-to-date assessment published by the entire federal government. It concludes that "there is no convincing alternative explanation" for the global warming we've observed, other than human causes. The report concludes that only steep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can alter the upward trajectory of air and ocean temperatures and their related impacts.
Access the National Climate Assessment Climate Science Special Report at https://science2017.globalchange.gov. (Source: Axios, Various Other Media, Nov., 2018)
More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change, Donald Trump,
According to Martin Mlynczak of NASA's Langley Research Center, "We see a cooling trend. High above Earth's surface, near the edge of space, our atmosphere is losing heat energy. If current trends continue, it could soon set a Space Age record's Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry or SABER instrument, which is onboard NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER monitors infrared radiation from carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO), two substances that play a vital role in the energy output of our thermosphere, the very top level of our atmosphere.
During Solar Maximum the Thermosphere Climate Index (TCI) number is very high. At times of Solar Minimum, as now, TCI is low. "SABER is currently measuring 33 billion Watts of infrared power -- ten times smaller than we see during more active phases of the solar cycle," Mlynczak notes.
The new NASA findings are in line with studies released by UC-San Diego and Northumbria University in Great Britain last year, both of which predict a Grand Solar Minimum in coming decades due to low sunspot activity.
(Source: NASA, New American, 1 Oct., 2018) Contact: NASA HQ, (202) 358-0001, Langley Research Center, Martin Mlynczak, email@example.com,
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA, NASA Langley Research Center, Climate Change,
In the near term, Helen will utilize biomass-based energy production. The utility will also close its largely coal-fired Hanasaari power plant and develop modifications for new plants. Longer term solutions will entail energy recycling, increased utilization of locally produced renewable energy, energy storage and other initiatives.
The City of Helsinki is aiming to source 15 pct of its power demand from rooftop solar and geothermal energy.
(Source: City of Helsinki, Sept., 2018) Contact: City of Helsinki, Helen Ltd, 09 617 8080, www.helen.fi/en
More Low-Carbon Energy News City of Helsinki , Helen Ltd, Renewable Energy,
"With science still under attack and the climate threat growing, we're launching our own damn satellite. This groundbreaking initiative will help governments, businesses and landowners pinpoint -- and stop -- destructive emissions with unprecedented precision, on a scale that's never been done before," the Governor proclaimed.
Planet, which was founded by ex-NASA scientists in 2010, has in the last two years launched more than 150 Earth-imaging satellites, manufactured in San Francisco, helping customers in agriculture, government, mapping, NGOs and in other markets to make better decisions. The company's aerospace and data processing infrastructure, innovative technology and engineering and scientific expertise will be utilized to develop and operate the new satellite, with the possibility of launching additional satellites in the future as part of this initiative.
The State of California, through the California Air Resources Board (CARB) is developing and refining the technology needed to make this initiative possible. Planet will manage the mission operations and collaborate with the State and others on funding this groundbreaking effort. The State and Planet will make the collected environmentally-related satellite data available to the public and will work in partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and others with complementary projects. the new Climate Data Partnership will serve as a common platform for reporting climate variables and the earth's atmosphere.
Initial project funding has been provided by Dee and Richard Lawrence and OIF, as well as The Jeremy and Hannelore Grantham Environmental Trust.
(Source: Office of Gov. Governor Edmund G. Brown, 17 Sept., 2018) Contact: Governor Edmund G. Brown, Phone: (916) 445-2841, Fax: (916) 558-3160;
Plant Labs, Robbie Schingler, Co-Founder and Chief Strategy Officer,
More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change, Gov. Jerry Brown,
The finding indicates that the carbon cycle in this region is speeding up and releasing carbon at a pace more associated with a North American boreal forest.
As the temperature increases, the amount of time carbon stored in the Arctic soil also decreases. Consequently,
the balance between these two dynamics will determine whether Arctic ecosystems will ultimately remove or add atmospheric carbon dioxide in the future climate," the latter being the study's most likely conclusion. (Source: NASA JPL, 14U News, 4 Aug., 2018) Contact: NASA JPL, Anthony Bloom, of NASA JPL, www.jpl.nasa.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions, Climate Change, Global Warming,
The Skeena BioEnergy plant design is based on using 100 pct of the Skeena Sawmills waste -- planer shavings, sawdust, hog fuel and bark -- as feedstock to produce approximately 75,000 tonnes of pellets a year.
Skeena Sawmills and Skeena BioEnergy are owned by Roc Holdings, which was launched in 2012. Skeena Sawmills was purchased from West Fraser Timber the same year and began operation under its new private ownership in 2013.
(Source: Skeena Bioenergy, Various Media, Canadian Biomass, July 27, 2018) Contact:
Skeena BioEnergy, Roger Keery, VP, www.skeenasawmills.com/bioenergy
More Low-Carbon Energy News Skeena BioEnergy, Woody Biomass, Wood Pellet,
In 1988, then Director of NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies, he famously announced in televised testimony before the US Congress that "global warming is here," as the observed temperature record exhibited an anomalous rise above the statistical noise of natural fluctuations. Dr. Hansen's testimony "was an important turning point in the history of global climate change."
In 1975, Indian-born Professor Veerabhadran Ramanathan, Victor C. Alderson Professor in Applied Ocean Sciences, UC San Diego, noted the significant greenhouse effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halocarbons, particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as refridgerants and in manufacturing. This was a significant indication that showed how gases not only CO2 but such as CFCs that deplete the ozone layer could have ramifications for climate. This finding was also at the core of future negotiations for the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the ozone layer that followed in 1987. The Montreal Protocol benefits both the ozone layer and the climate system. Its effectiveness is much greater than the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol.
The Tang Prize, founded in 2012 by Dr. Samuel Yin, chairman of Ruentex Group, seeks to be an inspiring force for people working in all corners of the world. (Source: Source: Tang Prize Foundation, PR, 17 June, 2018) Contact:
Tang Prize Foundation,
More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change, GHGs, Montral Accord, Paris Climate Agreement,
Since 2010, the CMS has used its paltry $10 million per year budget to focus on forests and the carbon that they contain. One such project, in collaboration with NASA and the US Forestry Service, created an aircraft-based laser imaging device to quantify forest carbon stocks. The CMS also supported other countries in their efforts to preserve and study their forest stocks, particularly in tropical locations.
(Source: ScienceAlert, Inhabitat, 10 May, 2018)
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Monitoring System, NASA, Carbon Emissions, Trump,
According to the study, premature deaths would drop in cities on every inhabited continent with the greatest gains in saved lives occurring in Asia and Africa. Kolkata and Delhi, India, lead the list of cities benefitting from accelerated emissions cuts with up to 4.4 million projected saved lives and up to 4 million projected saved lives, respectively. Thirteen other Asian or African cities could each avoid more than 1 million premature deaths and around 80 additional cities could each avoid at least 100,000 deaths.
The new projections underscore the shortcomings of taking the lowest-cost approach to emissions reductions, which permits emissions of carbon dioxide and associated air pollutants to remain higher in the short-term in hopes they can be offset by negative emissions in the far distant future, said Drew Shindell, Nicholas Professor of Earth Sciences at Duke's Nicholas School of the Environment.
"The lowest-cost approach only looks at how much it will cost to transform the energy sector. It ignores the human cost of more than 150 million lost lives, or the fact that slashing emissions in the near term will reduce long-term climate risk and avoid the need to rely on future carbon dioxide removal. That's a very risky strategy, like buying something on credit and assuming you'll someday have a big enough income to pay it all back," Shindell said. (Source: Duke University, 19 Mar., 2018) Contact: Duke University, Tim Lucas, (919) 613-8084, firstname.lastname@example.org; Drew Shindell , (919) 681-8467, email@example.com, www.duke.edu
More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change, Duke University,
The study, led by scientist Nicholas Parazoo, used data on soil temperatures in Alaska and Siberia from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, with a numerical model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, that calculates changes in carbon emissions as plants grow and permafrost thaws in response to climate change.
(Source: NASA, India Blooms News Service , 6 Mar., 2018) Contact: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Nicholas Parazoo, (818) 354-4321, www.jpl.nasa.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory , CO2, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Emissions, Permafrost, NASA,
In their joint effort, the scientists performed eight test flights at varying altitudes to compare traditional aviation fuels against biofuels. In each test, a DLR Airbus A320 was fueled with a different blend of kerosene and Camelina-based biofuel. NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory followed a few kilometres behind an measured the pollutants in the Airbus' exhaust plume. Among the instruments on the flying laboratory were the ERc Instrument for Chemical composition of Aerosols (ERICA), from the Max Planck Institute and JGU Mainz.
NASA and DLR have been researching whether aviation biofuels are more eco-friendly for some time. According to a statement from the University of Mainz, previous studies have shown that 50 pct and 70 pct less soot particles form from a 50 pct biofuel mixture with 50 pct normal kerosene.
"At altitudes of eight kilometres, soot particles and water vapour form ice crystals at -50 degrees C, which can be seen in the sky as contrails. Among other things, the ice crystals prevent heat from escaping the atmosphere into space, meaning that every contrail creates its own small greenhouse effect."
(Source: German Aerospace Center, NASA, Various Media, Biofuels Int'l, 15 Feb., 2018)Contact: NASA, www.nasa.gov; Max Planck Institute, www.mpg.de/institutes; German Aerospace Center, www.dlr.de/rd/en
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA, Aviation Biofuel, Max Planck Institute,
The study research teams produced estimates for two known sources: emissions from the oil and gas industry; and microbial production in wet tropical environments like marshes and rice paddies. However, the sum of the estimated emissions from these and other sources is greater than the observed increase. The researchers explored the role of fires since the area burned by fires each year decreased by about 12 pct between the early 2000s and the period of 2007 to 2014, according to NASA data. The research is published in the journal Nature Communications. (Source: IISD, NASA, 23, Jan., 2018) Contact: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Susan Strahan, Atmospheric Scientist, (301) 286-8981, www.nasa.gov/goddard
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA, Methane,
While CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances were phased out by the mid-1990s, the study notes that the Antarctic ozone hole -- first discovered in 1985 -- "is healing slowly" because the man-made substances that caused the hole in the first place "have 50 - 100 year lifetimes."
Accordingly, researchers believe that it could be several decades before the ozone hole is eliminated altogether.
(Source: NASA Goddard, Common Dreams, Jan., 2018)
Contact: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Susan Strahan, Atmospheric Scientist, (301) 286-8981, www.nasa.gov/goddard
More Low-Carbon Energy News Montreal Protocol, NASA, Ozone, GHG, Climate Change,
The study bolsters a growing consensus that tropical forests are drying out or being cleared, burned and logged so fast that they now emit more carbon than they sequester. Whereas earlier estimates based on measurements of atmospheric carbon flows suggested that tropical forests might be carbon neutral or even a net sink, more-recent studies -- including ones based on data from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite -- agree broadly with this recent paper, according to David Schimel, an ecologist at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Schimel suspects that human activities such as starting fires and natural factors including droughts have severly hindered tropical forests' carbon storage capability.
The study estimates that the world's tropical forests release approximately 425 million tpy of carbon -- equivalent to roughly 5 pct of the globe's annual fossil-fuel emissions and about five times more than estimated in 2011.
(Source: NASA JPL, Nature, 29 Sept., 2017) Contact: NASA JPL, David Schimel, (818) 354-4321, www.jpl.nasa.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA JPL, Carbon Emissions, Carbon Sink,
If appointed and confirmed, Bridenstine, who is best known for his views on climate change and opening space to commercial plunder, would be tasked with implementing Trump's proposed budget cuts which would slash as much as $561 million from NASA's annual budget and ground the following NASA education programs and climate-related satellite missions:
El Nino is a periodic climate event that causes waters to warm up in east-central Pacific Ocean, which in turn causes huge changes in wind directions bringing less rain to south-east Asia and the Indian subcontinent, while increasing rain in other parts of the world. According to a report in the scientific journal Nature, the El Nino led to excessive carbon dioxide releases through hot weather and drought which caused extensive wildfires in south-east Asia, while drought in the Amazon rainforest stunted plant growth, reducing the amount of carbon they absorb while growing. Besides these, warmer weather and near normal rainfall in Africa caused forests to exhale more CO2.
The NASA measurements are a first for satellite tracking CO2 levels. Earlier, changes in greenery were tracked and from that deductions were made. In recent times, CO2 emissions from burning of fossil fuels had flattened out to about 36.2 billion tonnes in 2014 and 2015. Projections for 2016 indicated that emissions were still flat.
(Source: NASA, Times of India, Economic Times, 14 Aug., 2017) Contact: NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory, (818) 354-7716, www.nasa.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change, NASA, Carbon Emissions,
According to a just published Columbia University study by Professor James Hansen, former head of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies , most carbon in the atmosphere can be removed through improved forestry and agricultural practices alone, which would be comparatively inexpensive, and could enhance forest products and soil fertility. And, while reforestation and other measures to remove CO2 from the atmosphere will help, elevated fossil fuel emissions will require costly technological solutions to extract additional CO2 and prevent global warming.
However, if CO2 emissions grow at a rate of 2 pct a year -- they rose 2.6 pct a year from 2000 to 2015 -- nations would need to extract more than 1,100 gigatons of carbon from the atmosphere by 2100. This could be achieved only by using expensive technological solutions, according to the study.
According to Hansen, CO2 should be reduced to fewer than 350 ppm from the current level of about 400 ppm. To do so, nations must reduce CO2 emissions by 6 pct a year by 2021, and extract roughly 165 gigatons ( 1 gigaton = 1 billion tonnes) of carbon from the atmosphere by 2100. Even if global average temperatures stay below 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels -- the primary goal of the 2015 Paris climate agreement -- climate feedbacks could be "slowed," to the partial melting of ice sheets and resulting sea level rise. (Source: Court News, July, 2017)
More Low-Carbon Energy News GHG, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Climate Change,
More Low-Carbon Energy News GHG, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Climate Change,
According to Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences professor of bioproducts, Prof. Paul Smith, developing the capability to produce the huge volume of ASTM-certified, high-energy, dense biofuels needed by the airlines, and the logistics to handle the massive amount of feedstocks necessary has been a slow process. And now, oil prices in the low $40-a-barrel range are bogging the process down further, as the cost differential between petrojet and biojet widens and thus increases capital risk.
Smith's lab is part of a group that is evaluating regional supply chains that could be used for alternative jet fuel production, including feedstock production, transportation and fuel conversion. Researchers are examining fuel-production pathways, feedstock and infrastructure requirements, and commercial fuel demand to create scenarios for future production as well as identifying potential intermediate materials and co-products for each pathway to understand potential ways to aid in making biorefineries more economical. The project aims to identify key barriers that must be overcome throughout the alternative-jet-fuel supply chain to produce and effectively market 1 billion gpy of alternative jet fuel in the near term and 10 billion gpy in the longer term. The goal, Smith pointed out, has been to produce aviation biofuel from non-edible lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as timber harvests and crop residuals.
Penn State is part of a cooperative aviation research consortium known as the Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels and Environment, funded by the FAA, NASA, the Department of Defense, the EPA and Transport Canada. Led by Washington State University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the group is a coalition of 16 leading U.S. research universities and more than 60 private-sector stakeholders committed to reducing the environmental impact of aviation.
(Source: Penn State University, PR, 26 June, 2017) Contact: Penn State College of Agricultural Science, Prof. Paul Smith, (814) 865-8841, firstname.lastname@example.org, http://agsci.psu.edu
More Low-Carbon Energy News Jet Biofuel, Aviation Biofuel, Penn State University, Biofuel,