The study notes reducing one type of emission can come at the cost of increasing another, either in absolute terms or by limiting potential reductions offered by new technology. The researchers applied the metrics to evaluate the effects of a global expansion in aviation, consistent in magnitude with its current annual growth, then used this as a benchmark for three scenarios: they considered a growth scenario with fuel efficiency increases and reductions in NOx emissions factors consistent with 10-year goals; they evaluated the trade-offs between the climate and air quality impacts of engine-based NOx emissions reductions; re-assessed the climate and air quality trade-offs of jet fuel desulphurization.
According to lead researcher Dr. Sebastian Eastham: "Three components are responsible for 97 pct of climate and air quality damages per unit aviation fuel burn -- air quality impacts of NOx at 58 pct, climate impacts of CO2 at 25 pct, and climate impacts of contrails at 14 pct. It is important to note that 86 pct of the NOx impacts on air quality are due to the emissions from cruise as opposed to the landing and takeoff cycle.
"To reduce the climate impacts of aviation, measures aimed at reducing CO2 emissions and contrails are likely to have the greatest net climate benefit. In contrast, 94 pct of air quality impacts are driven by NOx. This suggests that measures aimed at reducing NOx emissions during cruise could lead to the greatest net benefits", Eastham added.
"Finally, we found the air quality impacts of aviation emissions significantly exceed the climate impacts, with air quality impacts being 1.7 to 4.4 times higher than the climate impact per unit of fuel burn," he concluded. (Source: MIT, Eurasia Review, 10 Nov., 2019)
Contact: MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Dr. Sebastian Eastham, Lead Researcher, 617-258-7537 www.aeroastro.mit.edu
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions, Aviation Emissions, Climate Change,
The researchers described the device as a large, specialized battery with a stack of electrodes that absorbs CO2 from the air passing over its surface as it was being charged, and then released the gas as it was being discharged.
According to the researchers, the pure CO2 stream could be compressed and sequestered underground or processed into fuel through a series of chemical and electro-chemical processes.
(Source: MIT, The Tribune, Press Trust India, 29 Oct., 2019) Contact: MIT, Sahag Voskian, 617.253.4588,
617.253.8723 - fax, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.hattongroup.mit.edu
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MIT and ENI cooperation has resulted in numerous research successes and 30 patent filings for low-carbon technologies and innovations including the development of nanotechnologies and materials for lightweight, flexible solar photovoltaics, advancing magnetic fusion energy technology and others, according to a joint statement.
(Source: MIT, Ruhmuna Daily, 19 Oct., 2019)
ENI, Claudio Descalzi, CEO, +39 06 598 21,
+39 06 598 22141 - fax., www.ein.com; MIT Energy Initiative, Louis Carranza, Assoc. Dir., energy.mit.edu
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According to the company, wind farms at the end of their typically 25 years lifecycle are usually decommissioned and their equipment scrapped. Renewable Parts intends to salvage, repair and resell the "fully warranteed" parts at up to 40 pct below the cost of new parts.
The company will use its aftermarket spares warehouse in Renfrew near Glasgow to provide the turbine repair and recycle service, while engineering advice will be sourced from the University of Strathclyde and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Source: Renewable Parts, Power Technology, 11 Oct., 2018)
Contact: Renewable Parts, James Barry, CEO, +44 141 886 1220, www.renewable-parts.com
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In reaching their conclusion, the researchers considered carbon taxes at $25 and $50 per ton of carbon emissions produced and two rates of increase -- 1 pct or 5 pct per year -- as well as three different approaches to dispensing the revenue: an equal rebate to every household; a tax break for individuals; or a corporate tax break.
The study showed that even the lowest taxation rates could lead to reductions sufficient to meet the U.S. near-term commitment under the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. However, the most efficient way of achieving those reductions, in terms of overall impact on the economy, is to use the revenue to reduce taxes on corporate profits or investment income. Rebating equal payments across the board was found to be the least efficient and individual tax breaks came in somewhere in between on both criteria. The researchers suggest a combination of tax breaks to corporations and rebates to the low-income families most affected by the tax could virtually eliminate the regressive aspects of the tax at very little cost in overall efficiency as well as be politically acceptable.
Their analysis indicates that starting with a $50 per ton carbon tax and increasing it by 5 pct per year would lead to a 63 pct reduction in total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
(Source: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, PR, AAAS, 5 April, 2018) Contact: MIT, Sloan School of Management, John Reilly, energy.mit.edu/profile/john-reilly
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ASC supports a wide range of activities from facilitating the safe and reliable delivery of energy to customers around the world to pushing for breakthroughs in research and innovation, according to the release. (Source: Aramco, Trade Arabia, The National, 25 Mar., 2018) Contact: Saudi Aramco, Amin H. Nasser, Acting Pres., CEO, +966 13 872 0115, email@example.com, www.saudiaramco.com; MIT Sustainability office, sustainableMIT@mit.edu, www.mit,edu
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According to Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences professor of bioproducts, Prof. Paul Smith, developing the capability to produce the huge volume of ASTM-certified, high-energy, dense biofuels needed by the airlines, and the logistics to handle the massive amount of feedstocks necessary has been a slow process. And now, oil prices in the low $40-a-barrel range are bogging the process down further, as the cost differential between petrojet and biojet widens and thus increases capital risk.
Smith's lab is part of a group that is evaluating regional supply chains that could be used for alternative jet fuel production, including feedstock production, transportation and fuel conversion. Researchers are examining fuel-production pathways, feedstock and infrastructure requirements, and commercial fuel demand to create scenarios for future production as well as identifying potential intermediate materials and co-products for each pathway to understand potential ways to aid in making biorefineries more economical. The project aims to identify key barriers that must be overcome throughout the alternative-jet-fuel supply chain to produce and effectively market 1 billion gpy of alternative jet fuel in the near term and 10 billion gpy in the longer term. The goal, Smith pointed out, has been to produce aviation biofuel from non-edible lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as timber harvests and crop residuals.
Penn State is part of a cooperative aviation research consortium known as the Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels and Environment, funded by the FAA, NASA, the Department of Defense, the EPA and Transport Canada. Led by Washington State University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the group is a coalition of 16 leading U.S. research universities and more than 60 private-sector stakeholders committed to reducing the environmental impact of aviation.
(Source: Penn State University, PR, 26 June, 2017) Contact: Penn State College of Agricultural Science, Prof. Paul Smith, (814) 865-8841, firstname.lastname@example.org, http://agsci.psu.edu
More Low-Carbon Energy News Jet Biofuel, Aviation Biofuel, Penn State University, Biofuel,