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IMO Updates Maritime GHG Emissions Strategy (Ind. Report)
International Maritime Organization
Date: 2019-11-18
In London, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is reporting its Intersessional Working Group on Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships has agreed on a draft strategy on the voluntary reduction of GHG emissions from ships. The resolution urges IMO member states to develop National Action Plans that could include:
  • improving domestic institutional and legislative arrangements for the effective implementation of existing IMO instruments;

  • developing activities to further enhance the energy efficiency of ships;

  • initiating research and advancing the uptake of alternative low-carbon and zero-carbon fuels;

  • accelerating port emission reduction activities; and fostering capacity-building, awareness-raising and regional cooperation;

  • facilitating the development of infrastructure for green shipping.

    IMO noted that it has already adopted mandatory technical and operational measures to improve the energy efficiency of ships and reduce GHG emissions, including the energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for new ships and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships of 400 GT and above. (Source: IMO. Bunkerspot, Nov., 2019)Contact: International Maritime Organization, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Maritime Organization,  


  • Maritime Giant Maersk Aims for Zero Emissions Vessels by 2030 (Int'l)
    Maersk.Martime Emissions
    Date: 2019-09-25
    At the UN climate action summit in New York. senior figures from the maritime, infrastructure, energy and finance sector, including shipping giant Maersk and oil company Shell, joined the "Getting to Zero Coalition" and pledged zero emissions shipping will be a commercial reality by the end of next decade.

    To that end, the companies will seek to coordinate the launch of clean fuels and vessels while making sure that these are supported by adequate ports, finance and policy incentives.

    The initiative is in keeping with UN International Maritime Organization's (IMO) pledge to halve emissions from 2008 levels by 2050. Currently responsible for 2 - 3 pct of annual global emissions, the international shipping industry could see its emissions jump up to 250 pct by 2050 in the absence of any action. (Source: Maersk, PR, 23 Sept., 2019) Contact: Maersk Line, Soren Skou, CEO,www.maerskline.com International Maritime Organization Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Maritime Organization,  Maritime Emissions,  Maersk,  Climate Change,  


    Neste Introduces IMO 2020 Compliant Maritime Fuel (Int'l Report)
    Neste
    Date: 2019-08-16
    Helsinki-headquartered Neste, the world's largest producer of renewable diesel fuel reports it will introduce Neste Marine 0.5 , a new fuel before the year end.

    The new fuel will help maritime shippers comply with the International Maritime Organization's 2020 sulfur cap of 0.5 pct to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, effective 1 Jan, 2020. Neste Marine 0.5, which is manufactured at the company's refinery in Porvoo, Finland, will be available at yet to be announced locations in Northwest Europe.

    In other Neste news, the company announced it is partnering with Valdosta, Georgia-based McCall Companies to distribute its branded Neste MY Renewable Diesel in Oregon, which implemented clean fuels standards in 2016. (Source: Neste, Biodiesel Mag., 15 Aug., 2019) Contact: Neste, +358 10 458 4128, www.neste.com; McCall Companies CEO Kevin Jones, CEO, 229.242.2551, Fax - 229.244.8358, mail@mccallinc.com, www.mccallinc.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Neste,  Maritime Fuel,  Marine Fuel,  IMO ,  


    Maritime Shipping Majors Could Miss Emissions Targets (Int'l)
    CDP
    Date: 2019-06-26
    A Sea Change, a new report from the London-headquartered environmental non-profit and investment research provider CDP notes the world's maritime shipping majors are not investing in key technologies to reduce their carbon footprint, and that the sector is at risk of missing the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) targets to reduce GHG emissions by 50 pct by 2050.

    The report ranks 18 of the largest publicly listed shipping companies, representing $62 billion of market capitalization, on business readiness for a low-carbon transition. CDP's analysis finds maritime innovation trends currently focus on technologies and fuels that only deliver marginal improvements; the shipping sector has poor rates of disclosure with only 5 companies completing CDP's 2018 Climate Change questionnaire; and board level oversight of climate issues is very low with only 3 companies having board level climate committees.

    According to the report, shipping accounts for up to 3 pct of global emissions and 10 pct of transport emissions while transporting around 80 pct of the world's trade in physical goods. (Source: IMO, CDP, 25 June, 2019) Contact: CDP, Carole Ferguson, Head of Investor Research, www.cdp.net; IMO, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Maritime Organization,  IMO,  Maritime Emissions,  CDP,  


    Maritime Shipping to Halve Carbon Footprint by 2050 (Int'l)
    International Chamber of Shipping
    Date: 2019-05-22
    The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS), the world's major maritime shipping organization, representing around 80 pct of the world's merchant tonnage, reports it "remains confident that shipping will improve its carbon efficiency by at least 40 pct by 2030 compared to 2008, in line with the UN International Maritime Organization (IMO) targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions."

    ICS also noted it welcomes the additional guidance agreed by the IMO MEPC to assist the smooth implementation of the global sulphur cap on 1 January 2020 -- requiring ships outside sulphur emission control areas to use fuel with a sulphur content of 0.5 pct or less. (Source: International Chamber of Shipping, Marine Link, 17 May, 2019) Contact: IMO, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org; International Chamber of Shipping, Guy Platten, Sec. Gen., www.ics-shipping.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Chamber of Shipping,  IMO,  Maritime Emissions,  Shipping Emissions,  


    BIMCO Calls for "Realistic" Maritime Emissions Reduction (Int'l)
    Baltic and International Maritime Consultative Organization
    Date: 2019-02-25
    The Denmark-headquartered Baltic and International Maritime Consultative Organization (BIMCO) notes that the forthcoming Fourth International Maritime Organization (IMO) Greenhouse Gas Study should not include "unrealistically high GDP growth projections to determine the future level of shipping industry emissions."

    BIMCO wants the next IMO study to ignore Scenarios 1 and 5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) because they are based on unrealistic short- to mid-term economic growth projections. According to BIMCO, "The previous [IMO] study's most pessimistic projection of a 250 pct increase in CO2 emissions from shipping has since proven to be totally unrealistic, given the actual and projected economic development of the world, Unfortunately, the 250 pct projection has frequently been used as a stick against the shipping industry and to shape regional policy. BIMCO wants to avoid that happening again."

    BIMCO claims a new report by the CE Delft consultancy uses a more realistic GDP growth forecast to project a reduction of 20 pct against a goal of 50 pct by 2050. Acknowledging the 30 pct shortfall in emissions reduction "We will need new solutions, in addition to traditional efficiency measures, to reach the 2050 target. But to pick the right solutions, we need realistic projections." BIMCO says.

    BIMCO has 2,000 members in more than 120 countries representing shipowners, operators, managers, brokers and agents. (Source: Baltic and International Maritime Consultative Organization, Project Cargo Global, Feb., 2019) Contact: BIMCO Lars Robert Pedersen, Deputy Sec. Gen., +45 44 36 68 00, +45 44 36 68 68. mailbox@bimco.org, www.bimco.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News BIMCO,  IMO,  Maritime Emissions,  


    ISO Developing Methanol Marine Fuel Standard (Ind. Report)
    International Maritime Organization
    Date: 2018-07-13
    The Washington-based Methanol Institute (MI) reports the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) will develop a standard for methyl/ethyl alcohol as a marine fuel and a standard for methyl/ethyl alcohol fuel couplings. By burning methonal as a fuel shipowners meet the 2020 sulphur cap, and potentially future CO2 emission regulations.

    The standard is to be developed for methanol as a marine fuel as owners look to a variety of alternatives to meet the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) 2020 0.5 pct sulphur cap. ISO is expected to develop the standard as soon as possible. There are currently eight methanol powered vessels in operation worldwide. (Source: International Maritime Organization, SeaTrade Maritime, 12 July, 2018) Contact: International Maritime Organization, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org; International Organization for Standardization, www.iso.org; Methanol Institute, (703)248-3636, www.methanol.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Organization for Standardization,  ,  Methanol,  International Maritime Organization,  


    Cargill Launches CO2 Challenge for Greener Shipping (Ind. Report)
    Cargill,IMO
    Date: 2018-07-03
    Minneapolis-based agri-business giant Cargill is reporting the launch of its CO2 Challenge initiative to accelerate the development of emission cutting technologies across the shipping sector. Cargill will work with risk management and certification specialist DNV GL and start-up advisor Rainmaking to deliver the initiative.

    In 2017, Cargill pledged to cut its CO2 per cargo-ton-mile by 15 pct by the end of 2020.The CO2 Challenge follows the latest round of talks at the UN International Maritime Organization (IMO) on how to curb emissions from the global shipping sector. The IMO announced a new target to cut shipping emissions 50 per cent by 2050 backed by an interim strategy to curb emissions and introduce new reporting-based measures designed to drive investment in greener shipping technologies and techniques.

    Businesses and entrepreneurs who have a product in need of commercial assessment, testing, investment, and scaling are being invited to apply to participate in the CO2 Challenge before September 17, 2018. (Source: Cargill, Business Green, 2 July, 2018) Contact: Cargill, Jan Dieleman, Pres. Ocean Transportation Business, (800) 227-4455, www.cargill.com/transportation/dry-bulk-shipping

    More Low-Carbon Energy News IMO.Maritime Emissions,  Shipping EmissionsCargill ,  Maritime Emissions,  


    GloMEEP Pilot Project Addressing Maritime Emissions (Int'l Report)
    IMO
    Date: 2018-05-04
    In Kingston, Jamaica reports it is among 10 countries that have been selected to participate in the Global Maritime Energy Efficiency Partnerships (GloMEEP) Project which aims to support the implementation of energy-efficiency measures to reduce maritime shipping industry greenhouse gas emissions.

    GloMEEP member countries -- Argentina, China, Georgia, India, Malaysia, Morocco, Panama, Philippines and South Africa -- will serve as lead pilot countries for implementing legal, policy and institutional reforms; undertake awareness-raising and capacity-building activities and establish public-private partnerships to support low-carbon shipping.

    Jamaica, through the Maritime Authority of Jamaica (MAJ), is currently staging a three-day session to assist maritime administrations, port authorities and their personnel to better understand sources of emissions in ports, identify strategies and solutions and train participants in the use of two new guides -- Guide for a Port Emissions Status Assessment and Guide for the Development of a Port Emissions Reduction Strategy -- which are being developed under the GloMEEP project.

    GloMEEP is being undertaken through partnership involving the Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO). (Source: Global Maritime Energy Efficiency Partnership, Jamaica Information Service, 2 May, 2018) Contact: GloMEEP International Maritime Organization, www.glomeep.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Maritime Emissions,  Carbon Emissions,  IMO,  


    IMO Wrestling with Maritime Shipping Emissions Accord (Int'l)
    International Maritime Organization
    Date: 2018-04-06
    In March, the International Transport Forum (ITF), an autonomous intergovernmental body within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD )reported that the international shipping industry could cut carbon emissions by between 82 pct and 90 pct by 2035 using currently available options such as clean-burning fuels like methanol, hydrogen and ammonia, implementing electric propulsion, hull design improvements and slower sailing speeds, all of which would cost the industry far in excess of an estimated $40 billion.

    The biggest concern to shipowners is that if the IMO fails to come up with a solid "voluntary" plan, the European Union will include shipping in its Emissions Trading Scheme, where a cap is set on permissible greenhouse gases and amounts that can be emitted.

    Shipping was excluded from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement with governments entrusting the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to find a consensus on carbon, sulfur and other emissions and air pollutant reduction measures from ocean going vessels. According to the IMO, shipping contributed about 3.1 pct of total annual CO2 emissions in the period from 2007 to 2012. Vessel emissions are projected to jump between 50 pct and 250 pct by 2050 if no action is taken. (Source: IMO, Others, WSJ, April, 2018)Contact: IMO, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org; International Transport Forum, www.itf-oecd.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Transport Forum,  International Maritime Organization ,  Maritime Emissions,  


    COP23 Updated on IMO's GHG, Climate Change Work (Int'l)
    IMO
    Date: 2017-11-13
    From the COP23 climate conference meeting in Bonn, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) reports the IMO's draft strategy on reduction of GHG emissions from ships has certified more than 2,600 ocean-going ships to the mandatory energy efficiency design requirements, which have been in force since 2013.

    The IMO also reports the significant global reduction in the sulphur content of the fuel oil used by ships from 1 January 2020 is expected to further contribute to maritime GHG emissions through the anticipated resulting uptake of alternative fuels. IMO also noted its capacity-building and technical cooperation with the UNDP-GEF-IMO global energy efficiency project (GloMEEP) and the European-Union funded maritime technology cooperation centre's network (GMN) project. (Source: IMO, Marine Link, 7 Nov., 2017)Contact: IMO, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News IMO,  Maritime Emissions,  GHGs,  Greenhouse Gas,  


    ICS Calls for Zero CO2 Emissions for Ocean Shipping (Int'l)
    International Chamber of Shipping,IMO
    Date: 2017-11-13
    According to the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS), which represents more than 80 pct of the world's maritime fleet, the elimination of carbon emissions from oceangoing vessels is achievable by the end of this century. To accomplish this goal the shipping industry must continue to support International Maritime Organization (IMO) with developing an ambitious CO2 reduction strategy, as well as embrace renewable energy-based power technologies.

    . While still requiring final IMO verification, ICS said current emissions reduction measures undertaken by the maritime industry has reduced the annual CO2 emissions to about 8 pct below the 2008 peak, despite a 30 pct increase in maritime trade. Various IMO member states have called for ship emissions reductions in the range of 50 to 70 pct by 2050 and 2060 (Source: ICS, American Shipper, 7 Nov., 2017) Contact: IMO, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org; International Chamber of Shipping, www.ics-shipping.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News IMO,  International Chamber of Shipping,  Maritime Emissions,  Shipping Emissions,  


    ICS Forecasting Carbon-Free Shipping after 2050 (Int'l)
    International Chamber of Shipping
    Date: 2017-11-10
    In Bonn, the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) announced its vision for a carbon-free fleet in the second half of the century and proposed that International Maritime Organization (IMO) member states adopt a "suitably ambitious goal" for a reduction in carbon emissions, based on an "agreed percentage."

    In addition to any climate measures that IMO may adopt, unrelated regulatory initiatives are likely to lead to emissions reductions in the near term due to "significant increases in marine fuels and the switch by the entire world fleet to low sulphur fuels." "This should greatly incentivize, to the extent this is possible, the further reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by ships.," the ICS says. (Source: International Chamber of Shipping , MarExec,, 7 Nov., 2017) Contact: IMO, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org; International Chamber of Shipping, www.ics-shipping.org International Chamber of Shipping,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Chamber of Shipping,  IMO ,  


    Maritime Biofuel Collaboration Announced in Singapore (Int'l)
    BHP, Goodfuels,International Maritime Organization
    Date: 2017-09-27
    In Singapore, energy providers BHP and GoodFuels report they have agreed to collaborate on a biofuels pilot project in 2018 as part of a larger discussion on the use of biofuels as a sustainable alternative maritime shipping fuel.

    The two firms joined forces at the Singapore Biofuel Roundtable organized by the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA). The roundtable comes at an opportune time in light of the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) 0.5 percent global sulphur cap on marine fuels which will come into effect from 2020, as well as he IMO's longer term plan to lower carbon emissions for shipping.

    MPA is seeking seek collaborative partnerships with shipowners on the bio-energy front, including finding solutions to barriers to the use of biofuels. (Source: MPA, BHP, Goodfuels, American Shipper, 25 Sept., 2017) Contact: GoodFuels, Dirk Kronemeijer, CEO , info@goodfuels.com, www.goodfuels.com/marine MPA, Andrew Tan, CEO, +65 6375 1600, www.mpa.gov.sg; International Maritime Organization, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News ,  Marine Biofuel,  Maritime Biofuel,  BHP,  Goodfuels,  International Maritime Organization,  


    Shipping Ind. Alliance Seeks to Lower Carbon Emissions (Int'l)
    International Maritime Organization
    Date: 2017-07-05
    A group of shipowners and operators and maritime industry related firms have joined forces with the London-headquartered International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Global Industry Alliance (GIA) in a global effort to improve shipping industry energy efficiency and reduce carbon output in maritime transport. GIA members will work together to identify and develop innovate measures and promote the implementation of new energy efficiency marine technologies, as well as operational measures, such as best practices, alternative fuels, and IT.

    GIA members include ABB Engineering (Shanghai) Ltd., DNV GL, Lloyd's Register EMEA, MarineTraffic, Ricardo UK Ltd., Royal Caribbean Cruises, Shell International Trading and Shipping Co. Ltd., Silverstream Technologies, Stena AB, Total Marine Fuels, Wartsila Corp., Mediterranean Shipping Co., and Winterthur Gas & Diesel Ltd. (Source: International Maritime Organization, American Shipper, 30 June, 2017) Contact: International Maritime Organization, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Maritime Emissions,  Carbon Emissions,  International Maritime Organization,  


    Maritime Organizations Call for IMO to Set CO2 Targets (Int'l)
    IMO,International Maritime Organization
    Date: 2017-06-26
    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee reports it will meet in July to develop a strategy for the reduction of the sector's CO2 emissions aligning the international shipping sector response to the 2015 Paris Agreement's call for ambitious contributions to combat climate change.

    INTERCARGO, International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and INTERTANKO have proposed that the IMO maintain international shipping's annual total CO2 emissions below 2008 levels to reduce CO2 emissions per ton of cargo transported one kilometer by at least 50 pct by 2050, compared to 2008.

    The international shipping industry was not included in the Paris Climate Accord although the industry is responsible for transporting about 90 pct of global trade and 2.2 pct of the world's annual man-made CO2 emissions. (Source: Maritime Exec., Various Others, 22 June, 2017)Contact: International Chamber of Shipping, Esben Poulsson, Chairman, +44 20 7090 1460, www.ics-shipping.org; International Maritime Organization, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Maritime Organization,  IMO,  Maritime Emissions,  


    CMC Supports 50 pct Marine Emissions Cut by 2050 (Ind. Report)
    Chamber of Marine Commerce,International Chamber of Shipping
    Date: 2017-06-14
    The Great Lakes Chamber of Marine Commerce (CMC) is endorsing proposed international targets to reduce marine shipping's carbon emissions per ton-kilometer by 50 pct by 2050 in order to match the ambition of the Paris Agreement on climate change.

    In May, the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) agreed to urge the UN agency, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), to adopt the reduction objectives on behalf of the international shipping sector as a whole.

    The objectives endorsed by ICS include maintaining international shipping's annual total CO2 emissions below 2008 levels; reducing CO2 emissions across international shipping by at least 50 pct by 2050 compared to 2008; and reducing international shipping's total annual CO2 emissions by an agreed percentage by 2050, compared to 2008, as a point on a continuing trajectory of CO2 emissions reduction. (Source: Chamber of Marine Commerce, Global Trade, Various Others, 12 June, 2017) Contact: Chamber of Marine Commerce, www.marinedelivers.com; International Chamber of Shipping, Esben Poulsson, Chairman, +44 20 7090 1460, www.ics-shipping.org; International Maritime Organization, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Chamber of Shipping,  Maritime Emissions,  Chamber of Marine Commerce,  


    ICS Calls for IMO to Commit to Maritime CO2 Targets (Int'l)
    International Chamber of Shipping
    Date: 2017-05-17
    In a submission to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Member States, the London-headquartered International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is urging the IMO to adopt the following objectives relative to climate change maritime CO2 emissions:
  • Maintain international shipping's annual total CO2 emissions below 2008 levels;
  • Reduce CO2 emissions per tonne-km, as an average across international shipping, by at least 50 pct by 2050, compared to 2008;
  • Cut international shipping's total annual CO2 emissions by an agreed percentage by 2050, compared to 2008, as a point on a continuing trajectory of CO2 emissions reduction; and
  • Remain in control of additional measures to address shipping CO2 reductions and to develop a global solution, rather than risk the danger of market distorting measures at national or regional level.

    According to the 2014 IMO GHG Study, international shipping emitted 921 million tons of CO2 in 2008. As a result of technical and operational measures, this figure declined by 13 percent to less than 800 million tons of CO2 in 2012 or 2.2 percent of the world's total CO2 emissions. (Source: International Chamber of Shipping, MarEx, 14 May, 2017) Contact: International Chamber of Shipping, Esben Poulsson, Chairman, +44 20 7090 1460, www.ics-shipping.org; International Maritime Organization, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News IMO,  International Chamber of Shipping,  Maritime Emissions,  Carbon Emissions,  


  • EU Proposes Action on Maritime Emissions (Int'l, Ind. Report)
    International Maritime Organization,EU ETS
    Date: 2016-12-21
    The European Parliament's Environment Committee's recent decision to take regional action over ship emissions with respect to emissions trading, unless the International Maritime Organization (IMO) acts first, has been met with a mixed response.

    Specifically, the Committee decided to include shipping emissions in the European Union's (EU's) Emissions Trading Scheme ( EU ETS) from 2023 if the IMO does not have a comparable system operating for global shipping from 2021.

    Among the maritime industry groups, Danish Shipowners' Association, the European Community Shipowners' Associations (ECSA), and the . International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) are opposed to the action. "Non-EU nations will be disappointed and very concerned by yesterday's vote in the European Parliament Environment Committee following IMO's adoption just a few weeks ago of a comprehensive road map for action," said ICS Director of Policy and External Relations, Simon Bennett. "But we hope that EU governments and the European Commission will see sense and recognize that threats to their trading partners will not serve the development of the global solution which both they and the shipping industry want and need." On the other hand, the Port of Rotterdam welcomed the decision. (Source: Ship & Bunker, Hellenic News, Various Other Media, 19 Dec., 2016) Contact: International Maritime Organization, Stefan Micallef, Director of Marine Environment Division, +44 (0) 20 7735 7611, www.imo.org; ICS, Esben Poulsson, Chairman, +44 20 7090 1460, www.ics-shipping.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News International Chamber of Shipping,  International Maritime Organization,  Maritime Emissions,  EU ETS,  

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