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Notable Quote -- Shell VP Comments on CCS
Shell Oil
Date: 2020-05-19
"CCS is a crucial technology to help society and economies thrive through the energy transition. We appreciate the leadership shown by the Norwegian government to accelerate the development of CCS value chains and believe that the Northern Lights carbon dioxide  solution has the potential to unlock investment in capture projects across Europe." -- Syrie Crouch, CCS VP, Shell Oil

More Low-Carbon Energy News Northern Light,  CCS,  Carbon Storage,  


Norcem Advancing Norwegian Cement Plant CCS Project (Int'l Report)
CCS,Norcem,Aker Solutions
Date: 2020-05-04
Oslo-based HeidelbergCement subsidiary cement manufacturer Norcem is reporting as much as 400,000 tpy of carbon dioxide could be captured and stored at what is set to become the world's first full-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) facility for cement production, if government construction funding is approved. The project, which would use Aker Solutions carbon capture technology, would be constructed at a Norcem cement plant in Brevik.

The project has received necessary safety and quality certifications and could break ground in January 2021. Building the full-scale CCS system and operating it for five years is estimated to cost $1 billion. (Source: Norcem, ENR, May, 2020) Contact: Aker Solutions, Fredrik Berge, Inv. Relations, +47 22 94 62 19, fredrik.berge@akersolutions.com, www.akersolutions.com; Norcem, www.norcem.no

More Low-Carbon Energy News Aker Solutions,  CCS,  Carbon Storage,  Norcem,  Cement,  CO2,  


Claification -- Woody Biomass, Carbon Emissions Notable Quote
Woody Biomass
Date: 2020-05-01
"Mature trees do not stop absorbing carbon. It's just the opposite. Carbon sequestration actually accelerates as a tree grows older. 'Managed forests' is usually code for trees farms full of longleaf pine that are cut [down] frequently and absorb a lot less carbon than mature forests."

"From an emissions standpoint, the UK would be better off burning coal and leaving those (older) trees standing as long as possible." -- Bill Moomaw, Biomass Energy Researcher, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (Source: IPCC, Eco Business, Mongabay, 20 April, 2020)

A Bioenergy & Alternative Fuels report subscriber noted the following:

First, the 40 million acres, more or less, of managed southern pine plantations are loblolly pine not longleaf pine. These two pine varieties have important differences in growth rate and ecological values.

Second, and more much importantly, mature pine forest do not 'accelerate' their storage as they mature. These are privately owned lands and the details of the site and management practices are very important, but the annually growth rate (carbon accumulation) on most pine sites slows after 15-20 years. The TOTAL carbon on the acre/hectare increase, but at a slower annual rate.

Finally, and completely absent from these discussion that are typically led by scientist or environmental groups who do not have a clear understanding of the on the ground ownership and motivations of private landowners in the southern US, is that without a source of income some of these forest will be converted to some other uses, probably pasture, which has very limited carbon storage potential. In effect these EU experts are trying to shift the costs of carbon sequestration to private landowners. One can argue that if they want to sequester carbon in trees, and take on the additional risk of unplanned, large scale release from fire, disease or hurricane, that is fine, but they should pay the landowner for the carbon and the lost income.

Editor's Note: We thank our reader for his input and clarification of our report.

More Low-Carbon Energy News Woody Biomass,  


NM Tech Funded for $22Mn CCS Study (Ind. Report, Funding)
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Date: 2020-04-29
The New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech) is reporting receipt of $17.5 million in US DOE funding to study the safe storage of CO2 in underground saline reservoirs near the San Juan Generating Station. An additional $4.4 million in afunding will come from Enchant Energy and NM Tech funds.

The data obtained from the $22 million effort will be used to prepare, submit and obtain a permit to construction a Class VI well to store CO2 captured from the power plant if Enchant Energy successfully retrofits San Juan Generating Station with carbon capture technology. The Class VI wells are intended to store carbon dioxide in a safe and secure manner for at least 990 years.

Other recently funded CCS projects include:

  • Approximately $25.4 million for the Illinois Storage Corridor

  • Nearly $23.6 million for an early carbon dioxide storage complex in Kemper County, Mississippi

  • Roughly $25 million for a carbon dioxide storage well project in North Dakota as part of Minnkota Power's Project Tundra

  • About $19.1 million for a storage complex project in Campbell County, Wyoming, that would use CO2 captured from the coal-fired Dry Fork Station. (Source: New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Farmington Daily Times, 27 April, 2020) Contact: New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Robert Balch, Dir, Petroleum Recovery Research Center at New Mexico Tech, 575-835-5434, www.nmt.edu

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Storage,  CCS,  CO2,  New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology ,  


  • Wyoming Carbon Storage Project Scores $15.2Mn Funding (Funding)
    University of Wyoming, Basin Electric
    Date: 2020-04-24
    Plans for a commercial-scale geological carbon dioxide storage complex near Basin Electric Power Cooperative's 385-MW Dry Fork Station and the Wyoming Integrated Test Cente near Gillette have been boosted with a $15.2 million award from the U.S. DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Bismark, ND-based Basin Electric Power Cooperative is contributing $1.5 million to the project and University of Wyoming's School of Energy Resources (SER) cost-sharing contribution is $2.4 million. The project is intended to more than 50 million metric tons of CO2 underground.

    The three-year, $19.1 million project is the third phase under the DOE Carbon Storage Assurance Facility Enterprise (CarbonSAFE) initiative, which seeks to help mitigate CO2 emissions from consumption of fossil fuels. No CO2 will be injected during this stage. The Dry Fork Station project and others selected by the agency aim to develop integrated carbon capture and storage complexes that are constructed and permitted for operation between 2025 and 2030.

    Over the next three years, the project partners intend to conduct rigorous, commercial-scale surface and subsurface testing, data assessment and modeling; prepare and file permits for construction with Wyoming's Department of Environmental Quality; integrate this project with a separately funded CO2 capture study by Membrane Technology and Research Inc. (MTR); and conduct the required National Environmental Policy Act analyses in support of eventual commercialization of the site. Other project participants include: Advanced Resources International Inc.; Carbon GeoCycle Inc.; Denbury Resources Inc.; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and Schlumberger. Other UW participants are the Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute, the College of Business and the College of Law.

    The Powder River Basin produces about 40 pct of all coal consumed in the United States, and is also home to existing CO2 pipelines for oil and gas operations, including fields suitable for use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. (Source: University of Wyoming, 23 April, 2020) Contact: University of Wyoming, Carbon Management Institute , Scott Quillinan, Project Manager, (307) 766-1121, www.uwyo.edu; Basin Electric Power, Paul Sukut, CEO, Matt Greek, Snr. VP Technology R&D, (701) 223-0441, www.basinelectric.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Basin Electric,  Carbon Storage,  NETL,  University of Wyoming,  


    North West UK Hydrogen - CCS Project Funded (Int'l. Funding)
    HyNet
    Date: 2020-04-24
    In the UK, the HyNet hydrogen and carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCS) project reports receipt of Government funding to map out the northwestern region's journey to becoming the country's first net-zero carbon industrial sector by 2040.

    The £120,000 project, which is jointly funded by UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) under the Industrial Decarbonization Challenge Fund (IDCF), will help determine how the North West region will decarbonise and meet its goal. The region -- Cheshire, parts of North East Wales, Warrington, Liverpool City Region and Greater Manchester -- which collectively generates roughly 6 million tpy of industrial CO2 emissions. (Source: HyNet, GasWorld, 22 April, 2020) Contact: UK Research & Innovation Industrial Decarbonization Challenge Fund, www.ukri.org/innovation/industrial-strategy-challenge-fund/industrial-decarbonisation

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions,  CO2,  Carbon Storage,  CCS,  Hydrogen,  Carbon Captur,  


    Mature Tree CO2 Absorption Rate Questioned (Int'l. Report)
    Western Sydney University
    Date: 2020-04-20
    In the Land Down Under, a newly released study from Western Sydney University has found that mature forests may absorb significantly less carbon dioxide than previously thought, suggesting Earth may be closer to a climate change tipping point than previous models suggested.

    Reseacrhers led by Professor Belinda Medlyn, spent four years pumping roughy 38 pct more CO2 than would naturally be absorbed into an adult eucalyptus forest and then measured how much CO2 the trees could absorb. Initially the trees absorbed 12 pct of the CO2 but were unable to capture the additional CO2 to prevent it from re-entering the atmosphere. Current climate change models estimate that mature trees should absorb and capture approximately 12 pct of the CO2 in the atmosphere.

    The study found that although the trees could absorb the expected 12 pct, they were unable to retain the CO2 through sequestration and passed about half of the CO2 they had absorbed into the soil, where it was processed and then returned to the atmosphere via soil bacteria or small fungi on the forest floor. The other half of the carbon dioxide was released through the trees themselves. (Source: Western Sydney University, Lifesly, 17 April, 2020) Contact: Western Sydney University, Prof. Belinda Medlyn, Research Leader, www.westernsydney.edu.au

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Sequestration,  Carbon Storage,  Carbon Emissions,  


    Economy Could Lose $10Tn with Business-as-Usual Approach to Climate Change (Ind. Report)
    World Wildlife Fund,University of Minnesota
    Date: 2020-03-27
    A recently released collaborative report from the University of Minnesota (UMN) and the World Wildlife Fund has found that the global economy stands to lose $10 trillion by 2050 if countries continue to operate under a "business as usual" approach to climate change. The report notes the U.S. will likely be the biggest loser.

    Through a combination of applied economics and environmental mapping, the team uses satellite technology to analyze different landscapes and ecosystems around the world. Based on the geographical data, researchers can calculate the landscape's susceptibility to things like carbon storage or erosion and can predict how local economies will be affected by the damage done by climate change.

    The study predicts that if countries begin to follow an alternative "global conservation" approach, the U.S economy could gain as much as $11 billion by 2050. (Source: University of Minnesota, World Wildlife Fund, Minnesota Today, 25 Mar., 2020) Contact: WWF, Toby Roxburgh, www.worldwildlife.org; University of Minnesota Institute on the Environment, Justin Johnson, Stephn Polasky, (612) 624-6973, www.environment.umn.edu

    More Low-Carbon Energy News World Wildlife Fund,  Climate Change,  University of Minnesota,  


    NETL Exploring Cost-Effective CCUS Technologies (Ind. Report)
    National Energy Technology Lab
    Date: 2020-03-23
    The National Energy Technology Lab (NETL) is reporting it efforts to develop cost-effective, clean carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies have yielded more than 180 second-generation R&D projects and cut the cost of carbon capture by nearly 50 pct while reducing the amount of energy used by such technologies by nearly 20 pct.

    Other related NETL programs include a Carbon Storage program which aims to install CO2 injection and containment throughout geologic storage complexes. Further, its Carbon Utilization program pushes R&D that would use CO2 to create chemicals, offset capture costs, promote clean and safe development of energy resources, and create new markets along the way. The lab is also looking at things like materials engineering, fabrication, and computer technologies to spur greater energy efficiency and longer power plant service lives. (Source: NETL, Energy Matters, 19 Mar., 2020) Contact: NETL, Brian Anderson, www.netl.doe.gov

    More Low-Carbon Energy News National Energy Technology Lab,  NETL,  Carbon Capture,  


    BC Carbon Capture Storage Assessment Completed (Ind. Report)
    TGS
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Global geoscience data for exploration & production specialist TGS reports completion of a Geological Carbon Storage Atlas for British Columbia (Canada) for a major oil and gas company. The study provides the most up-to-date understanding of geological carbon storage locations, onshore and offshore, throughout the province of British Columbia.

    Through collaboration with its partner Canadian Discovery Limited, TGS leveraged its world-class basin evaluation expertise, subsurface data library, and geological knowledge and experience through working in British Columbia, to create a framework for carbon storage assessment and atlas for potential storage locations, according to the TGS release. (Source: TGS. Strategic Research Institute, SteelGuru,, Gasoil News , 12 Mar., 2020) Contact: TGS, Katja Akentieva, Global.Marketing@tgs.com, www.tgs.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Carbon Storage ,  


    Heriot-Watt Touts New Carbon Capture R&D (Int'l. Report)
    Heriot-Watt University
    Date: 2020-02-10
    As previously reported chemical engineers from Heriot-Watt University in the UK are reporting a collaboration with international researchers to design materials that could synthesize new metal-organic framework materials (MOFs) -- porous crystals that combine metal nodes with organic linkers -- that can capture CO2.

    To that end, the research team conducted experiments that mimicked real industrial operations and compared the performance of their new materials with those that are currently commercially available.

    According to Dr Susana Garcia, Assoc. Dir., Heriot-Watt Research Centre for Carbon Solutions, "Instead of the conventional trial and error, we computer-generated 325,000 MOFs and identified the features of the best performers. We now have the tools to tailor-make a material that will separate carbon dioxide in the most economical way for a given source, like industrial emissions, and make it available for other purposes like carbon storage or as a resource for the chemical industry," Dr. Garcia noted. (Source: Heriot-Watt University, PR, Engineer Live, 17 Dec., 2019) Contact: Heriot-Watt University, Dr Susana Garcia, Assoc. Dir., Heriot-Watt Research Centre for Carbon Solutions, www.hw.ac.uk

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Heriot-Watt University ,  Carbon Capture,  


    LLNL Envisions CO2 Cuts Without Cutting CA Oil Prod. (Ind. Report)
    Lawrence Livermore National Lab
    Date: 2020-02-07
    In the Golden State, a new study from the US DOE's Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has found that California can bury or offset 125 MW per year of CO2 by 2045 through land management practices, waste material processing, capturing atmospheric CO2 and storing the gas deep underground without negatively impacting the state's oil production.

    The study also suggests the local economy might be able to avoid fallout from Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom's plan to achieve carbon neutrality, in part, by managing the decline of California's Kern-centric oil industry and Kern's previously recognized geologic underground carbon storage capacity.

    The LNL report -- Getting to Neutral: Options for Negative Carbon Emissions in California -- also notes the entire effort would cost less than $10 billion per year, or less than .05 pct of the state's economic output.

    According to the report, 84 megatons per year of CO2 emissions can be rerouted by creating biofuels from biomass and that carbon associated with such activities could then be buried. Another 25 megatons per year could be avoided by restoring woodlands, grasslands and wetlands, among other land-management practices. Additional savings could be pulled right out of the air using energy-intensive technology. (Source: Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Bakersfield.com,3 Feb., 2020) Contact: Lawrence Livermore National Lab, www.llnl.gov

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Getting to Neutral: Options for Negative Carbon Emissions in California,  Lawrence Livermore National Lab ,  


    Heriot-Watt Univ. Funded for UK CCS Mapping Project (Int'l. Report)
    Heriot-Watt University
    Date: 2020-02-07
    In the UK, Heriot-Watt University reports its researchers led by Professor John Underhill are to map out the UK's best sites for carbon capture by studying the geology of depleted gas fields in the North Sea. The team will use data from the Oil and Gas Authority's (OGA) National Data Repository (NDR), which was opened up to access for the first time in 2019.

    Prof. Underhill believes the southern North Sea is one of the UK's most promising options for large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS).

    The £1.4 million study, which is funded by the Oil and Gas Technology Centre's (OGTC) Subsurface Solution Centre and matched funding from industry and Heriot-Watt University, is intended to help policymakers determine the most suitable CCS sites. (Source: Heriot-Watt University Website, insider.co.uk, 5 Feb., 2020) Contact: Heriot-Watt University, Prof. John Underhill, Dr Susana Garcia, Assoc. Dir., Heriot-Watt Research Centre for Carbon Solutions, www.hw.ac.uk; Oil and Gas Technology Centre, +44 1224 063200, www.theogtc.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Heriot-Watt University,  CCS,  Carbon Storage,  Carbon Sequestration,  


    Stockholm Planning Carbon-Negative District Heating (Int'l.)
    Stockholm Exergi,Fortum
    Date: 2020-01-29
    In Sweden, Stockholm Exergi, a joint venture between Helsinki, Finnish utility Fortum Oyi and the city of Stockholm, reports it is looking to make Swedish capital's district heating the world's first to become carbon negative.

    To that end, the company this spring will close its last coal-fired boiler and has replaced most of its coal-based production with biofuels. The company is also investigating the implementation of carbon capture systems to achieve a positive carbon footprint by 2040.

    Fortum Oyi is also testing carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Oslo at its joint venture Fortum Oslo Varme. Both the Stockholm and Oslo projects are partnering with the Northern Lights initiative, which is studying carbon storage in the bedrock of the North Sea. (Source: Stockholm Exergi, Recharge, 28 Jan., 2020) Contact: Stockholm Exergi, www.stockholmexergi.se; Fortum Oyi, www3.fortum.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Fortum,  Carbon Negative,  Carbon Emissions,  Stockholm,  


    Univ. Tenn. Peatland Carbon Processes Investigation Funded (Funding)
    University of Tennessee
    Date: 2020-01-27
    A UT microbiologist has received a portion of a $3.1 million grant from the US DOE to study how global warming could affect peatlands and their vast carbon stores in the future.

    Steven Wilhelm, the Kenneth and Blaire Mossman Professor of Microbiology, is part of a team led by Jean-Philippe Gibert, a food web expert and assistant professor of biology at Duke University. Wilhelm's co-investigators include David Weston and Dale Pelletier, staff scientists in the Biosciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Jonathan Shaw, professor of biology at Duke. In the three-year project, the group will study and model the effects of warming on the complex network of bacteria, protists, and viruses that interact with peat moss.

    Peat moss plays a key role in slowing climate change by keeping 370 million metric tpy of CO2 out of the atmosphere -- equivalent to the emissions from nearly half the car traffic in the US.

    Though peatlands cover just 3 pct of the Earth's surface they store twice as much carbon as all the world's forests. Over hundreds or thousands of years, Sphagnum and other peatland plants pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere as they grow, trapping the carbon inside layers of partially decayed plant material up to 20 feet deep. But warming trends could put that carbon storage at risk. Rising temperatures could thaw or dry out peat wetlands, making them more prone to decay and wildfires. Decomposing or burning plants mean the heat-trapping gas long locked up in peatlands could be released, accelerating the global warming process.

    To better predict the impacts of warming on peatlands and the carbon they contain, the team is studying a set of players they say are largely overlooked: microbes. Their previous work suggests that under future warming, the community of microbes and other tiny organisms that grow in and around peat mosses could shift balance, which could affect the ability of peatlands to sequester carbon. (Source: University of Tennessee, Knoxville, PR, 27 Jan., 2020) Contact: University of Tennessee, Karen Dunlap, 865-974-8674, kdunlap6@utk.edu, Amanda Womac , 865-974-2992, awomac1@utk.edu, www.utk.edu; Duke University, Robin Smith, (919-681-8057, robin.a.smith@duke.edu, www.duke.edu

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Peatland,  Carbon Storage,  Carbon Sequestration,  Carbon Emissions,  University of Tennessee,  


    Heriot-Watt Touts New Carbon Capture R&D (Int'l. Report)
    Heriot-Watt University
    Date: 2019-12-20
    In the UK, chemical engineers from Heriot-Watt University are reporting a collaboration with a team of international researchers to design materials inspired by drug design tools used by the pharmaceutical industry that could synthesise new metal-organic framework materials (MOFs) -- porous crystals that combine metal nodes with organic linkers -- that can capture CO2.

    The researchers conducted experiments that mimicked real industrial operations and compared the performance of their new materials with those that are currently commercially available. According to Dr Susana Garcia, Assoc. Dir., Heriot-Watt Research Centre for Carbon Solutions, "Instead of the conventional trial and error, we computer-generated 325,000 MOFs and identified the features of the best performers. We now have the tools to tailor-make a material that will separate carbon dioxide in the most economical way for a given source, like industrial emissions, and make it available for other purposes like carbon storage or as a resource for the chemical industry." (Source: Heriot-Watt University, PR, Engineer Live, 17 Dec., 2019) Contact: Heriot-Watt University, Dr Susana Garcia, Assoc. Dir., Heriot-Watt Research Centre for Carbon Solutions, www.hw.ac.uk

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Capture,  Carbon Emissions,  


    Sutdy Examines Farming as CO2 Absorber (Ind. Report)
    University of Virginia
    Date: 2019-12-11
    A recently released study from the University of Virginia notes that farming, agriculture and other land practices presently contribute around 11 gigatons to CO2 emissions per year -- roughly one quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. However, the study argues that the land could actually be converted into an absorber of carbon, given the right conditions.

    Among the measures recommended by the study were richer countries transitioning to plant-based diets and reducing food waste, while aiding poorer nations to curb deforestation and restore degraded land. If a concerted global effort was made, land could be absorbing three gigatons of carbon by 2050, turning one of our biggest liabilities into a helping hand in the fight against climate change. The study also recommends:

  • 95 pct reduction in deforestation and land degradation by 2050. This would include more robust conservation policies in developing tropical countries, as well as the conversion of coastal wetlands into protected areas and the prohibition of peatland burning.

  • 25 pct reduction in agricultural emissions by 2050. This would include introducing synthetic or organic fertilizers, enhancing the water-agriculture interface in places where rice cultivation is a primary industry and managing emissions from fermentation and manure.

  • 50 pct adoption of plant-based diets by 2050. This would involve encouraging a healthier diet through consumer campaigns and governmental policies, as well as the development of new foodstuffs to entice unconvinced consumers.

  • 50 pct reduction of current level of food waste by 2050. This would involve tightening up gaps in the supply chain, improving consumer awareness through advertising campaigns and enhancing refrigeration and distribution capabilities in the developing world.

  • Restoration of forests, coastal wetlands and drained peatlands. This would involve financing ecosystem services, improving in local and national conservation policies and investing in restoration practices.

  • Improving forestry and agroforestry management. This would include optimising current forestation conservation process and integrating agroforestry into lands currently used for agriculture and grazing.

  • Enhancing soil carbon sequestration capabilities. This would include controlling soil erosion, reducing tillage of the land and restoring degraded soils, as well as the application of biochar where appropriate.

  • Deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) in developed countries. This would involve investing into the research and development of BECCS technologies and deploying them in relevant sites. (Source: University of Virginia, Environmental Technology, 1 Dec., 2019) Contact: University of Virginia, Stephanie Roe, Environmental Researcher, Report Lead Author, 434-924-7761, www.evsc.as.virginia.edu

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon,  Carbon Storage,  


  • Packard Foundation Warns Put a Brake on Bioenergy by 2050 to Avoid Negative Climate Impacts (Ind. Report)
    Packard Foundation
    Date: 2019-12-09
    According to the newly released Global Change Biology study from the Los Altos, California-based David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the burgeoning bioenergy sector must peak and decline in the next 30 years to alleviate extreme pressure on land. The study researchers assert that projections envisioning the use of biomass from crops, trees or grasses for fuel through 2100 overlook the technology's high carbon footprint and excessive land use.

    An Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released last year found that many scenarios capable of reducing the threat of climate change relied heavily on bioenergy, predicting that energy from biomass could make up 26 pct of primary energy in 2050 -- up from 10 pct in 2020 -- and predicting that solar and wind combined would likely only account for 22 pct. Those scenarios often relied on significant use of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), which involves growing trees across a large area of land to produce wood pellets burned for energy, then capturing and sequestering the carbon emissions. In its analysis, though, the IPCC found significant challenges associated with a high reliance on bioenergy, noting in particular that the vast areas of land required to produce biomass for energy would compete with food production and other human needs.

    The Global Change Biology assessment examine a flurry of recent reports that suggest even more problems with large-scale bioenergy projects reliant on large tracts of land, and also show that more cost-effective alternatives will be available in the coming decades. Pulling from these recent studies, the authors establish three reasons why large-scale bioenergy must and can peak and decline in the next 30 years:

  • Large-scale bioenergy emits carbon. Carbon emissions from bioenergy can be greater in the near-term than emissions from the fossil fuels it is replacing, undermining the assumption that bioenergy is always a relatively low-emission and low-cost form of energy. Burning wood pellets, for example, creates a "double climate problem." Manufacturing and shipping wood pellets entails substantial emissions of fossil CO2, and it can take decades or centuries for harvested areas to return to pre-harvest carbon stocks.

  • Large-scale bioenergy puts a squeeze on land. Land is already a scarce resource, and it will become even scarcer with time due to an increase in the human population and a rise in the appreciation of the conservation value of natural and mostly-natural ecosystems--even if agricultural yields continue to increase. Because land is so limited, we should use it as efficiently as possible for energy production. In contrast to land-intensive bioenergy, the amount of electricity that can be produced from a hectare of land using photovoltaics is at least 50-100 times that from biomass.

  • Large-scale bioenergy is inferior to other solutions. And, by mid-century, land-intensive bioenergy will face fierce competition from superior technologies such as wind and solar energy, the development of efficient storage and other flexibility solutions, and the advent of more effective carbon removal technologies such as direct air capture with carbon storage.

    The assessment comes at a time when the bioenergy industry is ramping up worldwide, with the EU in the lead. Bioenergy currently accounts for 10 pct of the world's energy, and 50 pct of our renewable energy. In the EU, bioenergy accounts for two-thirds of all renewable energy (nearly half from wood). Two-thirds of the EU's "20 pct Renewable Energy by 2020" target depends on bioenergy. And the bloc is also about to greenlight the conversion of five large coal plants to bioenergy plants that burn imported wood pellets from overseas forests.

    Land-intensive electrical power projects in particular are picking up steam as governments and industry leaders seek to transform disused coal factories into new profit centers. Between 2006 and 2015, the production of wood pellets for biomass energy use quadrupled to 26 million tons. Worldwide, demand for globally traded wood pellets destined for use in phased-out coal plants or new dedicated bioenergy plants is expected to rise 250 pct by 2027.

    The study lays out a bioenergy trajectory that policymakers can use to encourage sustainable bioenergy while also opening the door for new technologies to replace land-intensive bioenergy in the very near future. These recommendations include improved accounting of the actual carbon emissions associated with the use of biomass, favoring biomass from waste, residues or land management practices that enhance carbon storage, and providing incentives for energy storage, direct air capture technologies, and low-carbon alternatives to fossil fuels. Above all, the authors argue that bioenergy projects should be avoided if they involve natural forests, such as converting natural forests to bioenergy plantations, or use land best suited for food crops. And the authors caution that claims that bioenergy projects are a zero-carbon form of energy should be met with skepticism.

    The Packard Foundation through 2020, will have awarded nearly $1 billion in grants to reduce carbon emissions, one of the its greatest program commitments in its 55-year history. (Source: David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Dec., 2019) Contact: David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Walt Reid, Director Conservation and Science Program, Report Author, 650-948-7658, www.packard.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Bioenergy,  CO2,  CCS,  Biofuels,  Carbon Emissions,  


  • Peatlands Carbon Content Double Previous Estimates (Ind. Report)
    Columbia University Earth Institute,
    Date: 2019-10-23
    According to a recently published Columbia University Earth Institute study published in Nature Geoscience, Northern peatlands may hold twice as much carbon as scientists previously suspected. The study findings suggest that peatland areas play a more important role in climate change and the carbon cycle than they're credited for.

    The report notes that global climate models, which scientists use to predict climate change and its impacts, rarely account for the carbon that peat and other soils absorb, store and release.

    Their new study incorporates 4,139 radiocarbon measurements from 645 peatland sites in northern Europe, Asia, and North America. But the main innovation is in how the researchers calculated the carbon storage in peatlands.

    The report notes researchershave calculated that northern peatlands hold 1.1 trillion tons of carbon rather than previous estimates of roughly 545 billion tons. The report concludes that peatlands are decaying faster and releasing more carbon as the planet's thermostat climbs. (Source: Columbia University, Earth Institute, 21 Oct., 2019) Contact: Columbia University Earth Institute, Prof. Jonathan Nichols, 212-854-3830, www.earth.columbia.edu

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Peatland,  CO2,  Carbon Sequestrartion,  Carbon Emissions,  Carbon Sequestration,  


    DOE Invests $56Mn in Coal Technology Projects (R&D, Funding)
    US DOE,DOE Office of Fossil Energy
    Date: 2019-09-23
    The U.S. DOE is announcing 32 winners for $56.5 million in federal funding for cost-shared R&D projects for advanced coal technologies and research under six separate funding opportunity announcements (FOAs). The projects further the (Trump) Administration's commitment to strengthening clean coal technologies and cover a range of topics, including carbon capture, utilization, and storage; rare earth element recovery; coal to products; crosscutting coal R&D; steam turbine efficiency; and advanced materials. The awards are as follows:
  • $10 million for ten projects under DE-FOA-0001992, Maximizing the Coal Value Chain. The projects will develop innovative uses of domestic coal for upgraded coal-based feedstocks used to produce power and make steel and for producing high-value products from coal or coal by-products.

  • $11.9 million under DE-FOA-0001996, Advancing Steam Turbines for Coal Boilers. The two projects selected under this FOA seek to improve the performance of steam-based power cycles, resulting in lower cost electricity with reduced emissions per megawatt-hour from coal fueled boilers.

  • $9.3 million for ten projects under DE-FOA-0002001, Crosscutting Research for Coal-Fueled Power Plants. This effort supports DOE's Crosscutting Research Program, which develops technologies that can be applied to a range of fossil energy uses.

  • $5 million under DE-FOA-0002002, Advanced Materials for High-Efficiency, Flexible and Reliable Coal-Fueled Power Plants. DOE selected five projects to support its Crosscutting Research program, which fosters the development and deployment of innovative systems for improving efficiency and environmental performance.

  • 3 projects will receive up to $15 million under DE-FOA-0002003, Process Scale-Up and Optimization/Efficiency Improvements for Rare Earth Elements (REE) and Critical Materials (CM) Recovery from United States Coal-Based Resources.

  • 2 projects will receive $5.3 million under DE-FOA-0001998, Transformational Sensing Systems for Monitoring the Deep Subsurface. This award seeks to reduce uncertainty of and enable real-time decision-making associated with subsurface carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. The selected projects support DOE's Carbon Storage Research Program by improving characterization and prediction of subsurface fluid movement and enhancing real-time measurement of critical subsurface properties.

    DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)will manage the selected projects. (Source: US DOE, 20 Sept., 2019) Contact: US DOE Office of Fossil Energy, www.energy.gov/fe; NETL, www.netl.doe.gov

    More Low-Carbon Energy News DOE Office of Fossil Energy,  NETL,  Coal,  Clean Coal,  US DOE,  


  • DOE Announces $110Mn Grant Funding for CCUS R&D (R&D Funding)
    US DOE,NETL
    Date: 2019-09-16
    The U.S. DOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has announced approximately $110 million in federal funding for cost-shared R&D projects under three funding opportunity announcements (FOAs). Approximately $75M is for awards selected under two FOAs announced earlier this fiscal year; $35M is for a new FOA.

    These FOAs further the (Trump) Administration's commitment to strengthening coal while protecting the environment. Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is increasingly becoming widely accepted as a viable option for coal-fired energy sources or gas-fired power plants and other industrial sources to lower their CO2 emissions.

    Under the first FOA award, Front-End Engineering Design (FEED) Studies for Carbon Capture Systems on Coal and Natural Gas Power Plants, DOE has selected nine projects to receive $55.4 million for cost-shared R&D. The selected projects will support FEED studies for commercial-scale carbon capture systems.

    Under the second FOA award, Regional Initiative to Accelerate CCUS Deployment, DOE selected four projects to receive up to $20 million for cost-shared R&D. The projects also advance existing R&D by addressing key technical challenges; facilitating data collection, sharing, and analysis; evaluating regional infrastructure; and promoting regional technology transfer.

    Under the new FOA, , DOE is announcing up to $35 million for cost-shared R&D projects that will accelerate wide-scale deployment of CCUS through assessing and verifying safe and cost-effective anthropogenic CO2 commercial-scale storage sites, and carbon capture and/or purification technologies. These types of projects have the potential to take advantage of the 45Q tax credit for each ton of CO2 sequestered or utilized. The credit was recently increased to $35/metric ton for enhanced oil recovery and $50/metric ton for geologic storage.

    Projects selected under this new FOA shall perform the following key activities: complete a detailed site characterization of a commercial-scale CO2 storage site (50 million metric tons of captured CO2 within a 30 year period); apply and obtain an underground injection control class VI permit to construct an injection well; complete a CO2capture assessment; and perform all work required to obtain a National Environmental Policy Act determination for the site.

    DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory NETL) will manage the selected projects. (Source: US DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, PR, 13 Sept., 2019)Contact: US DOE Office of Fossil Energy. www.energy.gov/fe/foa-2058-front-end-engineering-design-feed-studies-carbon-capture-systems-coal-and-natural-gas, www.energy.gov/fe; NETL, www.netl.doe.gov

    More Low-Carbon Energy News NETL,  CCS,  US DOE,  CCUS,  CO2,  Office of Fossil Energy,  


    Australians Announce "Blue Carbon" Science Hub (Int'l Report)
    Blue Carbon
    Date: 2019-09-09
    Further to our 10th July report, the Australian Foreign Minister Marise Payne has announced the establishment of the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) Indian Ocean Blue Carbon Hub aimed at protecting and restoring the health of ocean "blue carbon" mangrove ecosystems.

    The hub, which will be hosted by the Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre at the University of Western Australia, will be jointly funded by the federal government and CSIRO to the tune of $600,000 over three years. According to hub director Dr Mat Vanderklift, "Blue carbon ecosystems are highly effective at carbon storage and protecting coastal communities against storms. The Indian Ocean is disproportionately important in blue carbon globally. The hub will allow us to accelerate action and go beyond talking about it, to doing something about it."

    Mangrove systems sequester "blue carbon" -- CO2 absorbed from the atmosphere and locked up in coastal wetlands such as mangroves. (Source: The New Nation, Sept., 2019) Contact: Indian Ocean Blu Carbon Hub, Dr Mat Vanderklift, Dir. Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre at the University of Western Australia, +61 8 6488 7270, www.uwa.edu.au › facilities › indian-ocean-marine-research-centre

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Mangrove,  Blue Carbon,  Climate Change,  


    Chevron Unveils Aussie CO2 Storage, Mitigation Project (Int'l)
    Chevron
    Date: 2019-08-09
    In the Land Down Under, Perth-based energy major Chevron Australia Pty Ltd. and its JV partners at the Gorgon LNG project, in Western Australia, are reporting the launch of the Gorgon carbon dioxide (CO2) injection system -- the world's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation project. When fully operational, the CO2 injection facility will cut Gorgon's GHG emissions by about 40 pct or more than 100-million tonnes over the life of the project.

    The Gorgon facility incorporates features aimed at maximizing energy efficiency and minimizing GHG emissions, and in steady-state operations, is anticipated to have the lowest GHG emissions intensity of any LNG project in Australia. (Source: Chevron Australia, Mining Weekly, Creamer Media NZ, 8 Aug., 2019) Contact: Chevron Australia Pty Ltd, +61 8 9216 4000, www.chevron.com/about/contact

    More Low-Carbon Energy News LNG,  Chevron,  Carbon Storage,  CO2,  


    Politicians Prodded to Address 'Killer Heat' (Opinions & Asides)
    Climate Change,Global Warming
    Date: 2019-07-19
    Killer Heat in the United States, a recently released report from the Union of Concerned Scientist predicts a lot more days of extreme heat -- so much that they're being called "killer heat" days. The study was released in part to spur action on the part of both politicians and business leaders.

    According to the report, "The United States federal government needs to continue with the (Obama) Clean Power Plan and not dismantle it, as the current (Trump) administration is attempting to do, to significantly reduce emissions from the power sector, which accounts for roughly 40 pct of the U.S. emissions footprint."

    The UCS scientists are asking the federal government to not only wean the nation off of fossil fuels, but develop plans for people to adapt to extreme heat. "The clock is ticking to reduce emissions. If nothing is done, we may have to get ready for an unrecognizably hot future" the report says.

    To make the needed deep emissions cuts, the reports recommends the U.S. implement a suite of federal and state policies, including: an economy wide price on carbon; policies to cut transportation sector emissions, including increasing fuel economy and heat-trapping emissions standards for vehicles; increased investment in low-carbon public transportation; policies to cut buildings and industrial sector emissions; policies to increase carbon storage in vegetation and soils, including through climate-friendly agricultural and forest management practices; increased investment in emissions and climate change related R&D; measures to cut methane, nitrus oxide, and other major non-CO2 heat-trapping emissions; and policies to help a rapid transition to low-carbon economies.

    Download the Killer Heat in the United States -Climate Choices and the Future of Dangerously Hot Days report HERE (Source: Union of Concerned Scientists, wusf Public Media, 18 July, 2019) Contact: Union of Concerned Scientists, Ken Kimmell, Pres., (617) 547-5552,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Union of Concerned Scientists,  Climate Change,  


    Wood Products Mitigate Under 1 pct Global CO2 Emissions (R&D)
    University of Wisconsin-Madison
    Date: 2019-07-08
    At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, an research analysis across 180 countries found that global wood products -- all the paper, lumber, furniture and more -- offset less than 1 pct of of annual global carbon emissions -- 335 million tons of CO2 in 2015, 71 million tons of which were unaccounted for under current UN standards.

    Current U.N. guidelines only allow countries to count the carbon stored in wood products created from domestic timber harvests, not the timber grown locally and shipped internationally, nor products produced from imported lumber. These regulations create a gap between the actual amount of carbon stored in the world's wood products and what is officially counted.

    The researchers asked the question, can we continue to consume wood products and have climate change benefits associated with that consumption?" To address that question, the researchers developed a consistent, international analysis of the carbon storage potential of these products, which countries must now account for under the global Paris Agreement to reduce carbon emissions.

    They used data on lumber harvests and wood product production from 1961 to 2015, the most recent year available, from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. The researchers modeled future carbon sequestration in wood products using five broad models of possible economic and population growth, the two factors that most affect demand for these products. In 2015, that gap amounted to 71 million tons of CO2, equivalent to the emissions from 15 million cars. If those guidelines remain unchanged, by 2065 another 50 million tons of CO2 may go unaccounted for due to this gap. But this additional, uncounted carbon does not significantly increase the proportion of global emissions offset by wood products, according to the study.

    Craig Johnston, a professor of forest economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Volker Radeloff, a UW-Madison professor of forest and wildlife ecology, published their findings July 1 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (Source: WU-Madison, PR, July, 2019) Contact: WU-Madison, Craig Johnston, (608) 890-3609, craig.johnston@wisc.edu, www.wisc.edu

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2,  Carbon Emissions,  Woody Biomass,  Carbon Storage,  


    Notable Quote -- Carbon Sequestration
    IndigoAg
    Date: 2019-06-21
    "If we took every cultivated acre on earth, which is about 3.5 billion acres, and got it back to 3 pct, that would take 1 trillion tons of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and it hold it in the soil. A trillion tons of carbon dioxide happens to be the increase that we've had in the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.” -- David Perry, CEO, IndigoAg Contact: Indigo Ag, David Perry, CEO, (844) 828-0240, info@indigoag.com, www.indigoag.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Carbon Dioxide,  CO2,  Carbon Storage,  


    Forest "Glow" Reveals CO2 Storage Capacity (Ind. Report)
    University of Utah
    Date: 2019-06-06
    Researchers from the University of Utah report they’ve found a way to monitor the total amount of Gross Primary Production (GPP), the chemical energy produced by the process of photosynthesis which can be tracked by satellites in evergreen forests to measure seasonal changes that impact leaf growth and color.

    Forests can store large amounts of carbon and so monitoring photosynthesis is an accurate way to track global carbon levels and measure how much CO2 is being stored. For evergreen trees which remain green all year round, it’s challenging to measure photosynthesis and carbon uptake. In the new study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers found a way to use solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) emitted by evergreen trees to monitor seasonal changes in photosynthesis and GPP. SIF occurs when chlorophyll levels return from a dormant state, and a photon is emitted which produces a faint “glow” not visible to the naked eye. Satellites can now detect SIF glow, and the researchers used scanning spectrometers to measure SIF in an evergreen forest in Colorado. The team found that fluorescence was a reliable indicator of seasonal chlorophyll changes matching the same patterns found in deciduous forests. Having a way to monitor GPP in both evergreen and deciduous forests will help researchers understand how climate change is impacting forests over a large scale.

    “Ultimately, measuring the small fluorescent glow from plants will allow us to see exactly timing and magnitude of carbon uptake from the terrestrial biosphere. This will help us understand how forests are responding to climate change and suggest how they might respond to future climate change,” said Troy Magney, research scientist of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a lead author of the study. (Source: University of Utah, earth.com, May, 2019)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2 Storage,  Carbon Storage,  Carbon Emissions,  

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2 Storage,  Carbon Storage,  Carbon Emissions,  

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2 Storage,  Carbon Storage,  Carbon Emissions,  


    Aussie Study says Soil Condition Key to Carbon Storage (Int'l)
    Curtin University
    Date: 2019-06-05
    In the Land Down Under, a just released study from Curtin University in Western Australian has found that the rate at which carbon is stored and released from soil differs vastly depending on a range of factors, across different regions and continents.

    "Regionally, the effect of climate on soil carbon storage is dependent on interactions with soil properties, mineralogy and topography. In some regions, climate does not play a role. This shows the need for localized assessments of soil carbon dynamics and a more effective approach to carbon management at local scales."

    "To slow the accumulation of greenhouse gases and help mitigate global warming, a better understanding of the factors controlling soil organic carbon storage, its composition and its vulnerability to loss is needed," lead researcher Professor Raphael Viscarra Rossel said. (Source: Curtin University, Xinhua, 4 June, 2019) Contact: Curtin University, Professor Raphael Viscarra Rossel, +61 8 9266 9266, Fax: +61 8 9266 3131, www.curtin.edu.au

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change,  


    Illinois Gov. Inks Carbon Storage Pilot Legislation (Reg. & Leg.)
    Wabash Valley Resources
    Date: 2019-05-10
    This week in Indianapolis, Indiana Gov. Eric Holcomb approved legislation allowing Wabash Valley Resources LLC to open a $450 million pilot project to produce anhydrous ammonia and store up to 50 million metric tons of CO2 at the former SG Solutions plant adjacent to Duke Energy's Wabash River Generating Station.

    The project is subject to US EPA approval. (Source: News & Tribune, 8 May, 2019) Contact: Wabash Valley Resources LLC, (929) 400-5230, www.wvresc.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Carbon Storage,  CO2,  


    Carbon Farming in the Golden State (Opinions, Editorials & Asides)

    Date: 2019-05-03
    "Agriculture is responsible for one-third of global carbon emissions, but an increasing number of farmers and ranchers think it can be a powerful ally in the fight to slow climate change, through a set of techniques called carbon farming.

    "The underlying principle of carbon farming is straightforward -- to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, where it drives climate change, and put it back into plants and the pedosphere, the Earth's living soil layer. One way farmers do this is by fertilizing their lands with nutrient-rich compost.

    "As plants grow, they store carbon in their leaves and roots and bank it in organic matter, such as decomposing plant pieces in the soil. Soil microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, also store carbon. This prevents the carbon from escaping into the atmosphere and joining oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

    "Carbon farming has taken hold in California, which is increasingly stepping up as a pioneer of progressive climate policy in the U.S., even as the Trump administration denies the reality of climate change.

    "Today, more than 80 ranchers and farmers in the state are implementing the practice. And the number is likely to increase, since the 2018 Farm Bill includes provisions for a pilot program that gives farmers an incentive to farm carbon.

    "Grassland soils naturally absorb and store carbon in soil organic matter, but common agricultural practices, like plowing and tilling, diminish this ability by breaking apart the soil and releasing its stored carbon into the atmosphere. The good news is that carbon can be reabsorbed by the very same soil. Dozens of farming methods, including composting, managed grazing, no-till agriculture and cover crops, are thought to achieve this feat. Many of them mirror age-old, organic farming techniques.

    "The potential for land-based carbon sequestration in California is significant. Rangelands cover about 56 million acres, half the state's overall land area. According to The New York Times, if 5 pct of that soil is treated with compost, the carbon sequestered would offset about 80 pct of the state's agricultural emissions, the equivalent of removing nearly 6 million cars from the road. If scaled to 41 pct, it would render the state's agricultural sector -- now accounting for 8 pct of the state's overall emissions -- carbon neutral for years. This amount is anything but negligible: California is the most populous state in the U.S. and the country's second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Overall, it's responsible for 1 pct of global greenhouse emissions.

    "Ultimately, carbon farming may only pull a limited amount of carbon from the atmosphere. But in California, grasslands appear to be a less vulnerable carbon storage option than fire-prone forests. With global greenhouse gas emissions on the rise, we need to commit to using carbon farming." (Source: NPR, High Country News, May, 2019)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions,  Carbon Sequestration,  Carbon Farming,  CO2,  Carbon Emissions,  


    Shell Seeking UK CO2 Storage Development Subsidy (Int'l Report)
    Royal Dutch Shell
    Date: 2019-04-24
    In the UK, the Sunday Times is reporting oil and gas giant Royal Dutch Shell is seeking an unspecified subsidy from the British government to support Shell's development of underground carbon dioxide storage.

    The requested subsidy is reportedly less than the roughly £40 million previously granted for renewable energy technologies, according to the Sunday Times. (Source: Talk Finance, Sunday Times, 23 April, 2019)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Royal Dutch Shell ,  CCS,  Carbon Storage,  CO2,  


    DOE Announces $87Mn for Coal R&D Projects (Ind. Report)
    US DOE
    Date: 2019-04-15
    In the nation's capitol, the U.S. DOE has announced up to $87.3 million in federal funding for cost-shared R&D projects for advanced coal technologies. In 2017, coal was the second-largest energy source for electricity generation in the United States.

    The R&D projects for coal-fueled power plants and technologies include the following separate funding opportunities:

  • Advancing Steam Turbine Performance for Coal Boilers -- This FOA seeks to improve the performance of steam-based power cycles, resulting in a lower cost of electricity with reduced emissions per megawatt-hour for coal-fueled boilers. This FOA also includes an area of interest for conceptual engineering design for steam turbines in the 50 -- 350 MW range in support of DOE's Coal FIRST initiative. DOE's Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) Advanced Turbines Program will support these projects. DOE Funding: Up to $22 million

  • Transformational Sensing Systems for Monitoring the Deep Subsurface -- This FOA seeks to reduce uncertainty and enable real-time decision making associated with subsurface carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. FE's Carbon Storage Research Program will support these projects. Read more details about this FOA here. Up to $4.8 million is available.

  • Crosscutting Research for Coal-Fueled Power Plants -- This FOA aims to develop innovative technologies that will enhance the performance and economics of the existing and future coal fleet thereby lowering electricity costs for consumers. FE's Crosscutting Research Program will support these projects. Up to $14.5 million funding available.

  • Advanced Materials for High-Efficiency, Flexible and Reliable Coal-Fueled Power Plants -- This FOA will reduce the cost and enhance the cyclic durability of materials used in advanced ultrasupercritical power plants. These advanced materials are critical to increasing the efficiency and reliability of coal-fueled power plants. FE's Advanced Materials Program will support these projects. Up to $26 million available.

  • Process Scale-Up and Optimization/Efficiency Improvements for Rare Earth Elements (REE) and Critical Materials (CM) Recovery from Coal-Based Resources -- This FOA will support cooperative agreements to advance the development of technologies for recovery REEs and CMs from domestic coal-based resources through both novel and conventional extraction, separation, and recovery processes. FE's Feasibility of Recovering Rare Earth Elements Program will support these projects. Up to $20 million available.

    DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) will manage all of the selected projects.

    Download details HERE. ( Source: US DOE, April, 2019) Contact: US DOE, Sec. of Fossil Energy, Steven Winberg, Assist. Sec., www.energy.gov/fe/office-fossil-energy

    More Low-Carbon Energy News US DOE,  Coal,  Clean Coal,  


  • Indiana CCS Bill Clears State House (Reg & Leg, Ind. Report)
    Indiana Wabash Valley Resources,Department of Natural Resources.
    Date: 2019-03-27
    In Indianapolis, the Indiana House reports passage of a bill that would create an underground carbon storage (CCS) pilot program to store carbon dioxide underground is going back to the state Senate for approval.

    The original proposal would have allowed companies to store CO2 underground as long as they got consent from owners of about half the land. This current bill creates a pilot program that allows one company to take ownership of the land through eminent domain, subject to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources approval.

    Subject to the bills passage and final approval, Wabash Valley Resources LLC plans to construct an ammonia production facility in Terre Haute and store its CO2 emissions underground to reduce its carbon footprint. (Source: Indiana Department of Natural Resources, wfiu. NPR, 26 Mar., 2019) Contact: Indiana Department of Natural Resources, (317) 232-4200 www.in.gov/dnr; Wabash Valley Resources, Todd Culwell, VP Corp. Affairs, www.wvresc.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Wabash Valley Resources,  CCS,  CO2,  Carbon Storage,  


    Flanders Commits €400Mn to CCS, CCU Initiative (Int'l Report)
    Arcelor Mittal
    Date: 2019-03-25
    Reporting from Antwerp, the Flemish government reports the approval of a plan to spend €400 million over the next 20 years in an effort to manage carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions and to become climate neutral by 2050. The plan calls for a reduction in fossil fuels consumption while implementing carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilization (CCU) of CO2 that is still being produced. Although CCS and CCU technology is not new it is expensive, and there is no related income from CCS for climate protection.

    The Flemish government is interested in CCU, an example of which is a pilot project launched in Ghent last week between steel producer Arcelor Mittal and chemicals manufacturer Dow, to split the carbon monoxide and CO₂ from steel production and use the CO₂ to produce bio-ethanol, a renewable energy source.

    In another example, energy provider Engie has joined with waste incinerator Indeval to use CO2 capture to produce ethanol in Antwerp. (Source: Various Media, Brussels Times, Apr, 2019)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Arcelor Mittal,  Carbon Emissions,  Carbon Storage,  CCS,  


    Midwest Perennial Grasses Biofuel Feedstocks Investigated (R&D)
    University of Minnesota
    Date: 2019-01-30
    In ongoing research to discover the ideal growing conditions for alternative biofuels feedstocks, researchers at the University of Minnesota College of Biological Science are investigating the advantages and environmental implications of perennial grasses on abandoned and degraded agricultural land on the US upper mid-western prairies.

    A potential benefit of perennial grasses is tied to their deep root systems. According to researchers, deeper root systems -- as opposed to those seen in annual crops like corn -- are able to store large amounts of carbon below ground that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. However, because perennial grasses on marginal lands can have low yields due to less fertile soil, researchers examined ways to maximize growth of the grasses without negative effects on the environment.

    In the 10-year study published in Nature Sustainability, researchers utilized 36 plots at an abandoned agricultural site in the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve to plant 32 species of prairie and savanna plants that are native to Minnesota. In 2007, researchers divided the plots into several groups and assigned them a combination of two treatments: water addition (i.e., irrigated or non-irrigated) and nitrogen fertilization (i.e., 0 g/m2, 7 g/m2, 14 g/m2). Over the next decade, researchers found that:

  • moderate treatments (irrigation and 7 g/m2 of nitrogen) had the best biomass yields and soil carbon storage, while having negligible effects on the stability, diversity and nutrient loss to groundwater;
  • compared with the control (non-irrigated and no additional nitrogen), moderate treatments resulted in almost twice the yield and soil carbon storage and -- if the plants were converted into bioenergy to displace fossil fuels -- it would result in twice the greenhouse gas savings;
  • compared with the moderate treatment, the more intensive treatment (irrigation and 14 g/m2 of nitrogen) had 30 percent lower greenhouse gas savings, 10 times greater nitrate leaching and 120 pct greater loss in plant diversity.

    Compared with corn ethanol, researchers found biomass yield from the best performing native prairie grasses was moderately lower -- six tons per hectare versus the average corn yield of eight tons per hectare in the U.S.. However, researchers found that because of lower nitrogen use and larger amounts of soil carbon storage, the native prairies would result in higher overall greenhouse gas savings when converted to bioenergy.

    The research was funded by the National Science Foundation's Long-Term Ecological Research program and the Global Climate and Energy Project. (Source: University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences, PR, 28 Jan., 2019) Contact: College of Biological Sciences at the University of Minnesota, Prof. David Tilman, Prof. Clarence Lehman, Lead Researcher, 612-625-5734 Fax: 612-624-6777, lehman@umn.edu, cbs.umn.edu; Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve, www.cedarcreek.umn.edu

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Biofuel Feedstock,  


  • U.K. Environmental Coalition Spearheading CCS Project (Int'l)
    Very Large Scale Decarbonization Partners
    Date: 2019-01-16
    In London, U.K. Energy and Clean Growth Minister Hon. Claire Perry has announced the U.K. will lead an international challenge to capture and sequester CO2. Additionally, Houston-headquartered Very Large Scale Decarbonization Partners (VLS Decarb) has announced its intention to carry out field trials of its highly innovative CO2 sequestration system in several U.K. and EU locations, including several U.S. shale basins where, pending results, these trial sites will be developed into fully functioning carbon dioxide storage facilities capable of permanently storing a significant percentage of annual U.S. CO2 emissions. VLS Decarb will target U.S. shale basins in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas.

    VLS Decarb is now securing long term carbon storage contracts from industrial, institutional and governmental clients seeking to mitigate CO2 emissions associated with their operations.

    VLS Decarb's proprietary technologies have the potential to permanently sequester approximately 35 years of global electric power CO2 emissions associated with the energy consumed in simultaneously sequestering all global CO2 emissions from all sources during the same time. (Source: VLS Decarbonization Partners, LLC, PR, Jan., 2019) Contact: VLS Decarbonization Partners, John Francis Thrash MD, jfthrash@vlsdecarb.com, www.vlsdecarb.com ; U.K. Energy and Clean Growth Minister, www.gov.uk/government/ministers/minister-of-state-minister-for-energy

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Sequestration,  CCS,  Carbon Storage,  CO2,  


    Equinor Awarded Seabed CO2 Storage Exploration Permit (Int'l)
    Equinor
    Date: 2019-01-16
    The Norwegian Government reports it has awarded an exploitation permit for CO2 storage on the Norwegian Continental Shelf to Norwegian multinational energy company Equinor. The permitted area is close to the Troll oil and gas field in the North Sea.

    Equinor is currently performing front-end engineering and design (FEED) studies on storage with project partners Shell and Total. The FEED-studies will provide more accurate cost estimates necessary for an investment decision. Equinor will next prepare a Plan for Development and Operations (PDO) scheduled for delivery in 2019. An investment decision for the Norwegian full-scale CCS project is expected in 2020/2021. (Source: Equinor, Gas World, 14 Jan., 2019) Contact: Equinor, www.equinor.com/en

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Equinor,  CCS,  Seabed Carbon Storage,  


    Equinor Licensed to Build Norwegian Seabed CO2 Storage (Int'l)
    Equinor
    Date: 2019-01-11
    In Oslo, Reuters is reporting the Norwegian Oil Ministry has awarded a license to Oslo-headquartered Equinor to develop carbon dioxide (CO2) storage under the North Sea. The company is now expected to submit a development plan for the Norwegian parliament's approval in 2020 or 2021. The preliminary estimates from 2016 showed it could cost approximately $852 million to establish a full CCS chain, including CO2 transportation by ships and the sub-sea storage.

    The planned storage will be located near Norway's largest oil and gas field, Troll, and aims to be able to receive CO2 from onshore power, cement plants and sources. About 1.5 million tpy of CO2 could be stored beneath the seabed during the first phase of the project, according to Equinor.

    If approved, the storage operation is expected to begin operations operations in 2023 or 2024. (Source: Equinor, Gassnova, Reuters, 11 Jan., 2019) Contact: Equinor, www.equinor.com/en

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Equinor,  Carbon Sequestration,  CO2,  Carbon Storage,  


    Finland Recalculates Forest Carbon Sink Capacity (Int'l Report)
    Carbon Sink
    Date: 2018-12-14
    In Helsinki, the Finnish Natural Resources Institute is reporting Finland could safely consume over 80 million cubic meters of its forest wood annually without disturbing the forest's carbon storage capacity.

    The Institute notes that earlier assessments of the size of the country's forest carbon sink had been underestimated and did not take the faster growth rate of forests under the influence of global warming and a warmer climate. The Institute added that even though the Finnish carbon sink will shrink because of wood usage, it would not be reduced to a critical level any time before 2050. The current level of forest use is roughly 70 million cubic meters annually. The government has aimed at an increase up to 80 million.

    The Institute study was in compliance with EU land usage decree requirements that members inform the EC by the end of 2018 about estimated carbon sink levels of their forests in 2021-2025. They will then be analyzed by experts from the EU and members. The EU Commission will define the final values in 2020. (Source: Finnish Natural Resources Institute , Xinhua, 12 Dec., 2018) Contact: Finnish Natural Resources Institute, +358 29 532 6000, www.luke.fi/en

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Sink,  CO2,  Carbon Dioxide,  Carbon Emissions,  Forest Carbon,  


    WSU Researchers Find Carbon Reserve Underfoot (R&D, Ind. Report)
    Washington State University
    Date: 2018-12-07
    According to research from Washington State University at least a quarter of all the carbon stored in Earth's soil is found locked up in minerals roughly six feet beneath the surface. But new research suggests this unique carbon reservoir will become less efficient at carbon storage as the planet warms. The research details the way carbon physically and chemically binds to minerals in soils across the globe.

    The new data showed minimal amounts of carbon are stored in the sediments of deserts and dry forests, but roughly six feet beneath the surfaces of wet forests, scientists found an abundance of carbon bound to reactive minerals. The persistence of water and decaying organic matter on the forest floor helps leach carbon from above and transport to minerals buried below.

    According to the new research, global warming won't impact the carbon that is already stored beneath the surface of wet forest floors, but it will alter the pathway by which new carbon gets stored. Temperature increases are likely to minimize the amount of water running through forest soil, even if precipitation levels remain stable.

    The results of the survey were published in the journal Nature Climate Change HERE. (Source: Washington State University, Vancouver, UPI, 2 Nov., 2018) Contact: Washington State University, Vancouver, Assoc. Prof. Marc Kramer, Environmental Chemistry, marc.kramer@wsu.edu, https://labs.wsu.edu/kramerlab/marc-g-kramer

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Washington State University,  Carbon Storage,  


    DRAX Woody Biomass Power Plant CCS Pilot Underway (Int'l. Report)
    DRAX
    Date: 2018-11-28
    Further to our August 20th coverage, in the UK DRAX Energy reports it has begun work on a pilot project to capture and store carbon dioxide emissions at its biomass plant in North Yorkshire. The facility burns woody sawdust pellets to operate the world's first carbon negative power station, according to DRAX.

    The UK aims to slash its greenhouse gas emissions by 80 pct compared with 1990 levels by 2050. (Source: DRAX, Investing.com, 26 Nov., 2018))Contact: DRAX Power, Andy Koss, CEO, +44 0 1757 618381, www.draxpower.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News DRAX,  CCS,  Carbon Storage,  CO2,  Woody Biomass,  


    Riparian Forest Carbon Storage Potential Explored (Ind. Report)
    Point Blue Conservation Science
    Date: 2018-11-14
    New Research from Petaluma, California-based Point Blue Conservation Science and Santa Clara University has concluded that riparian ecosystems and stream-side forests store "significant amounts of carbon." Accordingly, the report notes the the restoration of degraded forests is a critical strategy for addressing global climate change.

    The research, led by Dr. Kristen Dybala, found that the average amount of carbon stored in mature streamside forest rivals the highest estimates for tropical or boreal forests. The average values for mature streamside forests range from 168 to 390 tons of carbon per acre in the trees alone.

    Researchers also found that, on average, soil carbon can be expected to more than triple when converting from an un-forested site to a mature stream-side forest. With trees, it can take 40-90 years for these changes to come into full effect, and more than 115 years for soil carbon.

    The report notes new tools and funding sources are emerging to help plan for and implement effective stream-side forest restorations. Countries around the world have pledged to restore degraded forests under the Bonn Challenge, a global commitment to restore forests as a climate mitigation strategy.

    "Point Blue advances conservation of birds, other wildlife, and ecosystems through science, partnerships, and outreach. Our highest priority is to reduce the impacts of habitat loss, climate change, and other environmental threats while promoting nature-based solutions for wildlife and people, on land and at sea," according the the Point Blue website. (Source: Point Blue Conservation Science, Public Release, Nov., 2018) Contact: Point Blue Conservation Science, pointblue@pointblue.org, www.pointblue.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Storage,  Climate Change,  CO2 Emissions,  Point Blue Conservation Science,  


    NETs Offer CO2 Removal Potential, Report Notes (Ind. Report)
    National Academies of Science, Engineering
    Date: 2018-11-09
    A new report from the Washington, DC-headquartered National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine has concluded that a substantial research initiative should begin as soon as possible to learn more about the impacts, limitations and scalability of Negative Emissions Technologies (NETs).

    According to the report, NETs , which remove CO2 directly from ambient air or enhance natural carbon sinks, could be scaled up to capture and store a significant amount of global carbon emissions, but not enough to prevent a global temperature increase of more than 2 degrees C. More research is needed to understand how to overcome existing constraints on the technologies, such as high costs and energy requirements, according to the report.

    The report highlights two NETs -- direct air capture (DAR) and mineralization using chemicals and reforestation, changing agricultural practices to enhance soil carbon storage, using biomass produce electricity with CCS and enhancing the amount of carbon stored in coastal ecosystems. In addition to mitigating climate change, NETs could open an untapped market, the report notes. (Source: National Academies of Science, Engineering, Engineering News Record, Nov., 2018)Contact: National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine, 202-334-2000, www.nationalacademies.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2,  Carbon Capture,  Carbon Dioxide,  


    Amazon Mangroves Key to Carbon Storage, says Study (Ind. Report)
    Climate Change
    Date: 2018-09-26
    In Corvallis, Scientists led by Oregon State University ecologist Prof. J. Boone Kauffman have determined for the first time that the Amazon's waterlogged coastal mangrove forests, which are being clear cut for cattle pastures and shrimp ponds, store significantly more carbon per acre than the region's rainforest.

    The recently released long-term study offers a better understanding of how mangrove deforestation contributes to the greenhouse gas effect, one of the leading causes of global warming.

    The Brazilian mangrove forest fringes the entirety of the Atlantic Coast at the mouth of the Amazon, the largest river in the world with the largest mangrove forest. Mangroves -- aka Blue Carbon -- represent 0.6 pct of all the world's tropical forests but their deforestation accounts for as much as 12 pct of GHG emissions from all tropical deforestation.

    Partial funding for the study was provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development, Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program. (Source: Oregon State University, KTVZ.COM, 24 Sept., 2018) Contact: Oregon State University, J. Boone Kauffman, Research Leader, www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Kauffman3

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions,  Blue Carbon,  Carbon Sequestration,  Mangrove,  


    $7Mn Awarded for Geological Carbon Storage R&D (Funding)
    Office of Fossil Energy,NETL
    Date: 2018-08-31
    Kallanish Energy is reporting the US DOE Office of Fossil Energy has awarded $7 million in grants to the University of Illinois and the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks to advance the development and validation of geological CO2 storage technologies.

    The two projects will be managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The University of Illinois will focus on reservoirs and residual oil zones in the Illinois Basin in three states. The university received $3.4 million in federal funds and will provide $917,881 in matching funds.

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) will establish the Williston Basin CO2 Field Laboratory in the South Central Cut Bank oilfield in Montana. The NDEERC received $3.4 million in federal funds and will provide $873,926 in matching funds.

    Since 1997, DOE's Carbon Storage program portfolio includes industry cost-shared technology development projects, university research grants, collaborative work with other national laboratories, and research conducted in-house through the NETL Research & Innovation Center. The Carbon Storage program incorporates: Core Storage Research and Development; Storage Infrastructure; and Strategic Program Support to address significant technical challenges in order to meet program goals that support the scale-up and widespread deployment of CCS.

    Download details on the US DOE Carbon Storage Program HERE. (Source: DOE Office of Fossil Energy, Kallanish Energy, Others, 30 Aug., 2018) Contact: DOE Office of Fossil Energy, 202-586-6660, www.energy.gov/fe/office-fossil-energy; University of Illinois, (217) 333-1000, https://illinois.edu; NETL, www.netl.doe.gov; UNDEERC, (701) 777-5000, www.undeerc.org

    More Low-Carbon Energy News UNDEERC,  Office of Fossil Energy ,  Carbon Storage,  NETL,  


    Norway Open for Carbon Capture & Storage Business (Int'l. Report)
    Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy
    Date: 2018-08-13
    In Oslo, the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy reports it is proceeding with an undersea carbon capture and storage (CSS) project which, if successful, will serve as a stepping stone for full scale international operations.

    The Norwegian demonstration scale project, which is expected to be online by 2020, will capture emissions from a Heidelberg Cement cplant in Brevik and a waste incineration facility in Oslo. These sites all delivered their concept studies for CO2 capture in the fall of 2017. Each plant plans to capture roughly 400,000 tpy.

    Norway began in carbon storage with the Sleipner Project which has stored 1 million tpy CO2 since startup about 20 years ago. It was the first facility dedicated to CO2 storage and was installed as a means of avoiding the Norwegian carbon tax and reducing the CO2 content of natural gas produced in the area, which exceeded the specified European Union limit in CO2 concentration of 2.5 pct. (Source: Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, Design News, Aug., 2018) Contact: Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, +47 22 24 90 90, postmottak@oed.dep.no, www.regjeringen.no

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Carbon Capture,  CO2,  Carbon Dioxide,  


    UK Businesses Admonished to Reap CCUS Benefits (Int'l Report)
    Summit Power
    Date: 2018-08-13
    In the UK, in an apparent reference to research by low-carbon power experts Summit Power, the Minister of Energy and Clean Growth, the Hon. Claire Perry has pronounced "carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) one of the greatest industrial opportunities available to Britain today." The Minister adds that "international recognition that the technology must be used if the targets to limit global warming set in the Paris Agreement of 2015 are to be hit."

    In 2017, research by low-carbon power experts Summit Power forecast a £160 boost to the UK economy if CCUS technology was deployed on a large scale along the east coast. Summit Power proposed linking industrial areas in the South East, Teesside, Humber and Scotland to offshore carbon storage under the North Sea. The firm said the operating costs would be £34 billion annually, and the benefits to the national economy £164 billion

    . This past March, the UK's first CCUS demonstration plant opened in Cheshire. The Runcorn facility, owned by Econic Technologies and supported by the EU, converts C02 into polyols which are used to make foam-like materials. (Source: Business Week, 9 April, 2018) Minister of Energy and Clean Growth, the Hon. Claire Perry, www.gov.uk/government/people/claire-perry; Summit Power, https://summitpower.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Carbon Capture,  CO2,  


    ITB, IIASA Ink Bioenergy-Carbon Storage MoU (Int'l Report)
    Institut Teknologi Bandung, Austrian research institute International Institute
    Date: 2018-07-30
    In Indonesia, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) reports it has inked a Memorandum of Understanding to collaborate with the Austrian research institute International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) on bioenergy combined with Carbon Capture Storage (BECCS).

    Researchers, scientists and experts from both sides will develop and implement a joint research project which will be funded by a third party. There will also be joint scientific publications, research participation from academic staff in seminars and conferences, among other collaborations.

    Developing BECCS is significant for Indonesia since it is considered as one of the world's forest centres. The aim of this will also contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions regionally and globally. (Source: Institut Teknologi Bandung, Open Gov Asia, 27 July, 2018) Contact: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Prof. Dr Pavel Kaba, CEO, www.itb.ac.id; Institut Teknologi Bandung, +62-22-2580935, www.itb.ac.id

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Bioenergy,  CCS,  


    Trees vs Grass for Carbon Sink Supremacy (R&D, Ind. Report)
    UC Davis
    Date: 2018-07-11
    Researchers from the University of California, Davis have found that grasslands and rangelands are better carbon sinks than forests in present-day California. Years of warming temperatures, fire suppression, and drought have increased wildfire risks and turned the state's forests into carbon producers more than carbon consumers, according to the research.

    Trees store much of their carbon within their leave and woody biomass, while grass stores most of its carbon underground. This means that when a tree catches fire, it releases its stores of carbon back into the atmosphere. But when a fire burns through grasslands, the carbon fixed underground tends to stay in the roots and soil.

    The study suggests that grasslands and range lands should be given opportunities in California's cap-and-trade market, which was designed to reduce the state's greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. Their findings could also influence other carbon offset efforts around the world, especially those in semi-arid environments. This study states that, from a cap-and-trade and carbon-offset perspective, conserving grasslands and promoting rangeland practices that lead to reliable rates of carbon sequestration may help meet California's emission-reduction goals. (Source: UC Davis, earth.com, July, 2018) Contact: UC Davis, John Muir Institute of the Environment , Benjamin Houlton, Dir., (530) 752-7627, johnmuir.ucdavis.edu

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Storage,  Carbon Sink,  Climate Change,  Carbon Storage,  


    CO2 Rock Sequestration Verification Demo Touted (Ind Report)
    WellDog
    Date: 2018-06-29
    Laramie, Wyoming-based WellDog, Virginia Tech and Carbon GeoCycle are reporting their collaboration has delivered the world's first successful direct verification of carbon dioxide sequestered in an underground rock.

    The test injected over 13,000 tons of CO2 into stacked unmineable coal seams at depths of 900 to 2,000 feet with the goal of storing CO2 while simultaneously enhancing natural gas recovery. The verification, made using WellDog's proprietary Reservoir Raman System, reveals that carbon dioxide injected over the last two years flowed into all of the targeted coal seams in Buchanan County, Virginia.

    The $15.5 million project is funded by the US DOE, Virginia Tech, and private industry. The project research partners included Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research, Virginia Tech; Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy; DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory; Marshall Miller & Associates; Southern States Energy Board; CONSOL Energy; Geological Survey of Alabama; Sandia Technologies; Det Norske Veritas; WellDog; and Carbon GeoCycle. (Source: WellDog, PR, 27 June, 2018) Contact: WellDog, John M. Pope, CEO, info@welldog.com, www.welldog.com; Carbon GeoCycle, www.carbongeocycle.com

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Sequestration,  Carbon Storage,  CO2,  

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