Editor's Note: To ensure unbiased and equal coverage to all candidates , this publication will provide detailed coverage of the incumbent Republican Donald Trump's position on clean energy and climate change if and when his position paper is released.
More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change, Clean Energy,
"The majority of emissions reductions are through sequestration and are a result of anticipated land-use change primarily due to the interaction of the sediment proposal and the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). It is expected that a portion of hill country pasture will be converted to forestry between 2025 and 2050, as afforestation is a cost-effective option for achieving the sediment bottom line. The maximum amount that could profitably be converted is estimated at 600,000 hectares. However, on-farm mitigations through [freshwater farm plans] will play a role and contribute to achieving the sediment bottom line without changing land use, so it is uncertain how much contribution land-use change will make. Depending on the degree to which new sediment requirements are met with afforestation, three different emissions reductions scenarios were drawn up," according to the papaers.
Even the most conservative scenario found a reduction of 35 million tonnes of CO2 or the equivalent amount of another greenhouse gas (Mt CO2e) by 2050.
The most optimistic emissions reduction scenario for the freshwater reform package projected a sink of 97.2 Mt CO2e. New Zealand's annual gross emissions are around 80 Mt CO2e.
Excluding the sediment policy, the freshwater package is still estimated to present impressive reductions, on the order of four million tonnes of CO2e by 2050, the papers note. (Source: Newsroom NZ, June, 2020)
More Low-Carbon Energy News Aforestation. Reforestation, Soil Carbon, Carbon Sink, Carbon Emissions,
Endesa was recognized for its commitment and effort in calculating its carbon footprint and compensating for it through the 'Endesa Forest' initiative for the restoration of forests in degraded or burned areas.
The Ministry's Carbon Footprint Register is compiled by the Ministry for Ecological Transition, through the Spanish Climate Change Office (OECC). Companies can register voluntarily, and the register consists of three sections: carbon footprint and commitments to reducing greenhouse gas emissions; CO2 absorption projects; and carbon footprint compensation. The objective of this register is to contribute to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to increase absorption by carbon sinks in the Spanish national territory and thus to facilitate compliance with international commitments assumed by Spain relating to climate change.
Endesa has cut its CO2 emissions 66 pct since 2005 and aims for a 70 pct cut by 2030 compared to 2017 emissions levels.
(Source: Endesa SA , 3 June, 2020) Contact: Endesa SA, www.endesasa.com; Spanish Climate Change Office, www.ctc-n.org/about-ctcn/national-designated-entities/spanish-climate-change-office-ministerio-de-agricultura
More Low-Carbon Energy News Endesa, Carbon Emissions, Carbon Footprint,
The Forest Service scientists quantified the contribution of forests, harvested wood products, and urban trees to carbon capture and storage. They found that, collectively, these natural systems account for more than 95 pct of Earth's terrestrial carbon sink. The atmospheric carbon absorbed by forests, harvested wood, and urban trees is equal to more than 11 pct of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the United States each year between 1990 and 2018.
Download the Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removals from Forest Land, Woodlands, and Urban Trees in the United States, 1990-2018 report HERE. (Source: USDA Forest Service, April, 2020) Contact: U.S. Forest Service, www.fs.usda.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS, USDA Forest Service, Carbon Emissions,
The study, published on Wednesday in the journal Nature, tracked 300,000 trees over 30 years, providing the first large-scale evidence of the decline in carbon uptake by the world's tropical forests. The researchers combined data from two large research networks of forest observations in Africa and the Amazon, as well as years spent traveling to remote field sites
Study co-author Tom Evans said that forest conservation was recognized as critical for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement (COP15). However, despite that initial commitment, he noted that not enough attention has been given since to protection of intact forests for climate change mitigation.
Dense intact tropical forests serve as vital carbon sinks, removing CO2 from the atmosphere as their carbon-hungry plants and trees continue to put on growth. And they serve an out-sized role in sequestration -- while the WCS study found only 20 pct of the world's tropical forests can be considered "intact", these forests store 40 pct of above-ground carbon found in tropical forests. A 2011 study observed that intact tropical forests remove an estimated 1 billion metric tpy of CO2 from the atmosphere.
Access the Wildlife Conservation Society study HERE. (Source: Wildlife Conservation Society, The Rising, 22 Feb., 2020)Contact: Wildlife Conservation Society, (718) 220-5100 www.wcs.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News COP15, Carbon Sink, Climate Change, Deforestation, Carbon Emissions,
Blue Carbon is the carbon stored in coastal ecosystems of mangroves, tidal marshes and sea grass meadows contain large stores of carbon deposited by vegetation and various natural processes over centuries. These ecosystems sequester and store more carbon per unit area than terrestrial forests.
(Source: Florida Daily, IUCN Global Marine and Polar Programme, 13 Jan., 2019) Contact:
The Blue Carbon Initiative, www.thebluecarboninitiative.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News Blue Carbon, Carbon Sequestration, Carbon Sink,
For the purpose of allocating energy subsidies, the EU defines biomass as a clean energy source; however, the process of burning wood for electric power production both releases high levels of carbon emissions and contributes to the destruction of forest ecosystems. As forests act as a "carbon sink", absorbing CO2 which would otherwise be released into the atmosphere.
The report, which is based on research provided by economic policy consultancy Trinomics, covers biomass subsidies in 15 EU Member States between 2105 and 2018. Overall in 2017, the 15 Member States assessed for the report spent a total of €6.6 billion in direct subsidies for energy production using biomass. The report identifies Denmark as the highest subsidiser of biomass energy per capita followed by the UK and Germany. their renewable energy subsidies on biomass production.
According to the Burnout: EU Clean Energy Subsidies Lead to Forest Destruction report, "Burning trees for electricity is not renewable and not a viable climate solution. Critically, no EU Member State has formally ruled out burning forest biomass for electricity in the future. That can and should change before we (NRDC) publish our next assessment. In the coming years, we hope and expect that in EU countries where massive biomass industry subsidies have become entrenched, policymakers will redirect this financial support toward genuinely zero-emitting and renewable energy sources like solar and wind. Countries considering new policies and incentives to replace aging fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure, both inside and outside the European Union, must rule out incentives for burning forest biomass instead of or alongside coal." (Source: NRDC, Gov. Europa, 12 Nov., 2019)
Contact: NRDC, Kit Kennedy, Snr. Dir. Climate and Clean Energy Programme, 212.727.2700, email@example.com, www.nrdc.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News National Resources Defense Council , NRDC, Biomass, Woody Biomass,
The study, published August 5 in the journal Nature Geoscience, found that accounting for phosphorus-deficient soils reduced projected CO2 uptake by an average of 50 pct in the Amazon, compared to current estimates based on previous climate models that did not take into account phosphorus deficiency. The Amazon Basin is critical to help mitigate climate change due to its trees absorbing around a quarter of the CO2 released each year from the burning of fossil fuels.
According to Berkeley Lab research scientist and study co-author Jennifer Holm, "Most predictions of the Amazon rainforest's ability to resist climate change are based on models that have outdated assumptions; one of those is that a sufficient supply of nutrients such as phosphorus exist in soils to enable trees to take in additional CO2 as global emissions increase," said . "But in reality the ecosystem is millions of years old, highly weathered, and therefore depleted of phosphorus in many parts of the Amazon."
Agriculture, forestry, and other types of land use account for 23 pct of human-caused GHG emissions, yet at the same time natural land processes absorb the equivalent of almost a third of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry, according to the recently released International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on land and climate interactions.
(Source: DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, PR, Eureka Alert, 20 Aug., 2019) Contact: US DOE
Office of Science, energy.gov/science; LBNL, Jennifer Holm, Research Scientist and Study Co-author, www.linkedin.com/in/jennifer-holm-265600b, www.lbl.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News LBNL, Rainforest, CO2, Carbon Sink, Climate Change,
The Rutgers University researchers, from the New Brunswick, Newark and Camden campuses, will conduct monitoring and research at the largely wooded Duke Farms over five years.
The study will begin by compiling baseline data on the presence of carbon in various land types and land management protocols. The Rutgers scientists will then create strategies to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in soil and vegetation.
The study will also determine the greenhouse gas emissions supporting the Duke Farms operations compared to the carbon stored on the property.
(Source: Rutgers, Bridgewater Courier, 13 June, 2019) Contact: Rutgers Climate Institute, Marjorie Kaplan, Assoc. Dir., (848) 932-5739, www.climatechange.rutgers.edu; Duke Farms, Michael Catania, Exec. Dir., www.dukefarms.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS, Carbon Sequestration, Carbon Sink,
The EU has also committed to reducing its GHG emissions by at least 40 pctt by 2030, compared to 1990 levels. EU directives require that logging activities relative to the tree population remain unchanged and EC has accordingly asked Finland to specify future logging amounts and assess whether its current calculations for wood use are appropriate in light of alarming rises in GHG emissions.
(Source: Finland Natural Resources Institute, Barents Observer, YLE News, 11 June, 2019) Contact: Finland Natural Resources Institute, Prof. Aleksi Lehtonen, +358 29 532 6000,
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions, Forest Carbon Sink,
In reaching their conclusions, the researchers examined commitments made by 43 countries in tropical and subtropical regions, where trees grow faster and thus hold greater promise of removing atmospheric carbon.
These countries have pledged as of October 2017 to restore a combined 2.92 million square kilometers (1.13 million square miles) of degraded and deforested land -- an area almost twice the size of Alaska. Some of these are national commitments, while others were made under the Bonn Challenge launched in 2011 by the German government and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The latter initiative aims to restore 3.5 million square kilometers (1.35 million square miles) of degraded and deforested land by 2030 -- greater than the land mass of India.
The researcher's analysis found that at present, 45 pct of the commitments made by the 43 countries involve planting commercially profitable trees.
Many of these plantations are expected to occur in countries like Brazil, China, Indonesia, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In China, 98.8 pct of the area to be restored will host plantations. In Brazil, it's just over 80 pct of the targeted restoration area, with well under 1 pct for natural forests.
(Source: University of Edinburgh, Mongabay, April, 2019) Contact: University of Edinburgh, /www.ed.ac.uk
More Low-Carbon Energy News University of Edinburgh, Carbon Sequestration, Forest Carbon Sink, Reforestation,
According to the attached Sierra Club BC report, climate-warming carbon emissions released from B.C. forests in both 2017 and 2018 were more than three times higher than emissions from all other sources combined in 2016 when the province pegged its carbon footprint from non-forestry sources at 61.3 million tpy.
The report notes that forests can act as either a "carbon sink" that absorbs excess greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, or a source of carbon emissions if it releases more carbon than it absorbs, as occasioned by the recent major forest fires.
The Sierra Club is calling on the province to produce an annual report measuring emissions from forests and to take steps to reduce forest carbon emissions, including banning slash burning, protecting old-growth forests and ramping up B.C.'s FireSmart program, which outlines best practices for reducing wildfire risk to properties in vulnerable communities.
In January, the B.C. government introduced the Clean B.C. plan to cut GHG emissions by 40 pct by 2030, 60 pct by 2040 and 80 pct by 2050. The plan redirects revenue from the provincial carbon tax into incentives like rebates for the province's biggest industries to move to cleaner operations.
Download the Sierra Club Hidden, Ignored and Growing:B.C.'s Forest Carbon Emissions report HERE.
(Source: Sierra Club BC, CBC, Feb., 2019) Contact: Sierra Club BC, (250) 386-5255, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.sierraclub.bc.ca
More Low-Carbon Energy News Sierra Club , Forest Carbon, Carbon Sink,
In the declaration, the five countries commit to enhance their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and intensify their cooperation to:
The Nordic Council of Ministers will prepare a proposal on how to follow up on the declaration by 31 August 2019.
The Copenhagen-headquartered Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries. Formed in 1952, it has 87 representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden as well as from the autonomous areas of the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and the Aland Islands. (Source: Nordic Council of Ministers, IISDS, 31 Jan., 2019) Contact: Nordic Council of Ministers, Sunitha Senanayake, +45 33 96 02 00,
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Neutral, Carbon Neutrality, CO2, Carbon Emissions, GHGs,
The Institute notes that earlier assessments of the size of the country's forest carbon sink had been underestimated and did not take the faster growth rate of forests under the influence of global warming and a warmer climate. The Institute added that even though the Finnish carbon sink will shrink because of wood usage, it would not be reduced to a critical level any time before 2050. The current level of forest use is roughly 70 million cubic meters annually. The government has aimed at an increase up to 80 million.
The Institute study was in compliance with EU land usage decree requirements that members inform the EC by the end of 2018 about estimated carbon sink levels of their forests in 2021-2025. They will then be analyzed by experts from the EU and members. The EU Commission will define the final values in 2020. (Source: Finnish Natural Resources Institute , Xinhua, 12 Dec., 2018) Contact: Finnish Natural Resources Institute, +358 29 532 6000, www.luke.fi/en
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Sink, CO2, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Emissions, Forest Carbon,
The Helsinki-headquartered airline is part of an initiative driven by Shell, SkyNRG, World Energy, San Francisco Airport and several other airlines, which aims to pave the way for a longer term, more resilient supply chain for sustainable aviation fuels, and thus supporting the aviation industry's common CO2 emission reduction targets.
(Source: Finnair, Travel Daily, 10 Dec., 2018) Contact: Finnair, Kati Ihamaki, Director, Corporate Sustainability, www.finnair.com;
Nordic Environment Finance Corporation, www.nefco.org; www.nefco.org; SkyNRG, Maarten van Dijk, Director, Merel Laroy, +31 6 3083 3505, email@example.com, www.sktnerg.com
More Low-Carbon Energy News SkyNRG, Finnair, Jet Biofuel, Aviation Biofuel, Carbon Emissions, ,
According to the report, NETs , which remove CO2 directly from ambient air or enhance natural carbon sinks, could be scaled up to capture and store a significant amount of global carbon emissions, but not enough to prevent a global temperature increase of more than 2 degrees C. More research is needed to understand how to overcome existing constraints on the technologies, such as high costs and energy requirements, according to the report.
The report highlights two NETs -- direct air capture (DAR) and mineralization using chemicals and reforestation, changing agricultural practices to enhance soil carbon storage, using biomass produce electricity with CCS and enhancing the amount of carbon stored in coastal ecosystems.
In addition to mitigating climate change, NETs could open an untapped market, the report notes.
(Source: National Academies of Science, Engineering, Engineering News Record, Nov., 2018)Contact: National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine, 202-334-2000, www.nationalacademies.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News CO2, Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide,
The programme is being developed by Marine Scotland in partnership with Scottish Natural Heritage, St Andrew's University, Glasgow University, Heriot-Watt University, Napier University, and the Scottish Association for Marine Science.
Scotland Environment Secretary Roseanna Cunningham said: "The potential role of our marine environment in tackling the greenhouse gas problem is enormous, with recent research by the University of St Andrews estimating that more carbon is captured and stored in sea lochs alone than in our terrestrial environment, such as forests and peatlands. Scottish Natural Heritage has estimated that the amount of carbon stored within Scotland's Marine Protected Areas is the equivalent of four years of Scotland's total greenhouse emissions," the Environment Secretary added.
Chair of the Blue Carbon Forum Professor John Baxter said: the "Programme will provide essential information to help inform what is required to be done to enhance and protect these key habitats into the future which is essential for the mitigation of future climate change." (Source: Gov. of Scotland, Holyrood Mag., Nov., 2018)
Contact: St. Andrews University Professor John Baxter,
+44 (0)1334 46, firstname.lastname@example.org, startlink]St. Andrews Univ., www.st-andrews.ac.uk
More Low-Carbon Energy News Blue Carbon, CO2, Carbon Sink, Carbon Sequestration,
According to the study, eelgrass organic carbon stocks were comparable to organic carbon stocks of tropical seagrass species, as well as mangroves, salt marshes and terrestrial ecosystems. The researchers also found that on average, eelgrass meadows stored 27.2 tons of organic carbon per hectare, although the variation between the regions was considerable
In the marine systems, the blue carbon species alone account for up to 33 pct of the total oceanic CO2 uptake. In contrast to terrestrial soils, which usually store carbon up to decades, the carbon stored in blue carbon ecosystems may persist for timescales of millennia or longer and thus, contribute significantly to climate change mitigation and alleviation of the rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Despite the importance of these ecosystems, to date, none of them are included in the global carbon trading programmes. Alarmingly, in the past 50 years, at least one-third of the distribution area of coastal vegetated ecosystems has been lost. (Source: Abo Akademi University, Public Press Release, 31 Oct., 2018) Contact: Abo Akademi University, Christoffer Bostrom ,
Associate Professor in Environmental and Marine Biology, +358 50 431 8226, email@example.com, www.abo.fi
More Low-Carbon Energy News Blue Carbon, CO2, Carbon Sink, Carbon Sequestration, EllGrass,
"Agriculture and forestry are a major source of greenhouse gases, contributing 20 -- 24 pct of all emissions. Livestock, fertilizers and burning biomass all produce greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide, or a combination of these and other gases. Deforestation and forest degradation are also major sources. However, agriculture and forestry can also act as carbon sinks -- plants take up carbon dioxide as they grow and store carbon in the soils. Land use is therefore part of the solution," according to the report.
The 2016-2019 project funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implemented by UN Environment was designed to help land management projects to evaluate their 'carbon benefits'. These can accrue in different land-use scenarios and ecosystems across the globe.
Download Learning to Use the Land so it Produces Fewer Greenhouse Gases report details
HERE. (Source: UN Environment, 3 Sept., 2018) Contact: UN Environment, www.unenvironment.org; GEF, www.thegef.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions, Carbon Sink, Greenhouse Gas, GHGs, Global Environment Facility ,
The EDF facilitated the development and sale of the credits with the help of a Conservation Innovation Grant from the USDA. Natural Capital Partners purchased the credits on behalf of its client Microsoft, which began a carbon neutrality program in 2012.
Grassland carbon credits reward landowners for retaining soil carbon and avoiding the emissions associated with converting grasslands into croplands. Grassland projects also provide ecosystem benefits such as habitat for threatened species.
The Climate Action Reserve's Grassland Project Protocol uses biogeochemical modeling and emissions factors to quantify carbon that would be released from the soil if the land were tilled. (Source: EDF, Aug., 2018) Contact: Environmental Defense Fund, www.edf.org;
Southern Plains Land Trust, https://southernplains.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News Environmental Defense Fund news, Carbon Credit news, Carbon Sink news,
The EDF facilitated the development and sale of the credits with the help of a Conservation Innovation Grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Natural Capital Partners purchased the credits on behalf of its client Microsoft, which began a carbon neutrality program in 2012.
Grassland carbon credits reward landowners for retaining soil carbon and avoiding the emissions associated with converting grasslands into croplands. Grassland projects also provide ecosystem benefits such as habitat for threatened species.
The Climate Action Reserve's Grassland Project Protocol uses biogeochemical modeling and emissions factors to quantify carbon that would be released from the soil if the land were tilled. Offsets are then generated for preserved belowground soil carbon, avoided use of nitrogen-based fertilizers and avoided use of carbon-emitting machinery for crop cultivation. (Source: EDF, 17 July, 2018)
Contact: Environmental Defense Fund, www.edf.org
More Low-Carbon Energy News Environmental Defense Fund, USDA, Carbon Credit,
Trees store much of their carbon within their leave and woody biomass, while grass stores most of its carbon underground. This means that when a tree catches fire, it releases its stores of carbon back into the atmosphere. But when a fire burns through grasslands, the carbon fixed underground tends to stay in the roots and soil.
The study suggests that grasslands and range lands should be given opportunities in California's cap-and-trade market, which was designed to reduce the state's greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. Their findings could also influence other carbon offset efforts around the world, especially those in semi-arid environments.
This study states that, from a cap-and-trade and carbon-offset perspective, conserving grasslands and promoting rangeland practices that lead to reliable rates of carbon sequestration may help meet California's emission-reduction goals.
(Source: UC Davis, earth.com, July, 2018) Contact: UC Davis, John Muir Institute of the Environment , Benjamin Houlton, Dir., (530) 752-7627, johnmuir.ucdavis.edu
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Storage, Carbon Sink, Climate Change, Carbon Storage,
Z Energy partnered with long-standing carbon consultants Permanent Forests NZ Ltd (PFNZ) for this offsetting initiative. PFNZ specialise in aggregating, marketing and selling New Zealand forest carbon credits on behalf of owners of forests registered under the Permanent Forest Sink Initiative.
The Z Energy investment is reported to be New Zealand's largest voluntary purchase of units from permanent forest sinks to date.
Z Energy's operational carbon emissions, including those from corporate travel, retail electricity, coastal emissions, and hauliers come to about 58,000 tonnes tpy of CO2-e (carbon dioxide equivalent) at an average cost of about $25 per tonne -- about $1.5 million per year.
In addition to the offset programme, Z Energy remains focused on reducing the carbon intensity of its biodiesel and other business.(Source: Z Energy, Voxy, 9 July, 2018) Contact: Z Energy, Gerri Ward, Sustainability Manager, David Binnie, GM, firstname.lastname@example.org, https://z.co.nz
More Low-Carbon Energy News Z Energy, Carbon Sink, Carbon Credits, Climate Change,
One hectare of seagrass, along with mangroves, has 30 - 50 times the potential of Amazonian forest in terms of [carbon] mitigation, according to study researcher and lead author Oscar Sorrano. It also has the potential to release huge amounts of carbon-dioxide back to the atmosphere -- potentially increasing the likelihood of further heatwaves by fuelling global warming.
The researchers - ranging from Australia, Spain, Malaysia, the United States and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - estimated the loss from the heatwave event released as much as 9 million tonnes of CO2, or the equivalent annual emissions of 800,000 homes or 1,600,000 cars.
The estimates were based on modelling releases based in-situ studies from 50 sites. (Source: Edith Cowan University, Nature Climate Change, Sydney Morning Herald, 20 Mar., 2018) Contact: Edith Cowan University, Oscar Serrano, Researcher, Paper Lead Author, +61 8 6304 0000, www.ecu.edu.au
More Low-Carbon Energy News Seagrass, Blue Carbon, Carbon Sink, CO2,
According to Stats NZ, Greenhouse gas emissions measures between 1990 and 2015, the latest year for which figures are available, show emissions increased from 61 million tpy to 76 million tpy.
Stats NZ accounts show both a dramatic rise in the total carbon sequestration occurring in maturing plantation forests and a dramatic drop in new planting from a peak at the start of the period of around 100,000 hectares a year to well under 20,000 hectares annually since 2005. That's in spite of the recognition that plantation forest carbon 'sinks' are one New Zealand's best options to meet its climate change commitments.
To remedy the situation, the government is ramping up a "billion trees" planting programme over the next decade. (Source: Stats NZ, SHARECHAT.co.nz, 29 Feb., 2018)Contact: Statistics New Zealand, www.stats.govt.nz
More Low-Carbon Energy News NZ Carbon Emissions, Carbon Sink, Reforestation,
Along with transport, agriculture, buildings and waste -- which are not covered by the EU's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) -- the LULUCF sector is required to contribute a 30 pct emissions cut by 2030 compared to 2005 levels, as part of the EU-wide commitment to cut overall emissions by 40 pct by 2030.
The 2000-2009 period has been set as the reference point for comparing carbon emissions, after MEPs had arbitrarily set this to 2009-2012 under pressure from Sweden, Finnland and other countries with large forestry sectors.
The lack of linkage between the European accounting from LULUCF and other continents' methods of forest management means that under the current proposal for the post 2020 Renewable Energy Directive, the EU counts burning biomass (pellets and wood) as renewable energy but does not take into account the net increase in emission if this wood is imported.
(Source: EURACTV, 14 Dec., 2017)
More Low-Carbon Energy News EU ETS, EU, Carbon Sink, Forest Carbon, CO2, Deforestation, Reforestaion,
"Worse, finance for sustainable forestry and agriculture aligned with climate goals -- approximately $20 billion since 2010 -- is dwarfed by the $777 billion pumped into the sectors that drive deforestation.
" For many developing countries, forest conservation represents the main contribution they can make to the global climate effort. While all tropical forest countries have committed to reduce forest emissions as part of their national climate plans, many have pledged further reductions on the condition that they receive international support. And more than 50 developing countries have been running programmes to prepare the ground for REDD+, including establishing social and environmental safeguards and forest monitoring systems that will enable them to access payments for verified carbon savings."
Progress on the New York Declaration on Forests report
HERE. (Source: Climate Focus, New York Declaration on Forest Assessment
Partners, Climate and Land Use Alliance, Ecosystem Marketplace, Nov., 2017)
More Low-Carbon Energy News REDD, Deforestation, Carbon Sink, Forest Carbon,
More than half the carbon stored in soil is more than 1 foot beneath the surface, and at that depth the organic matter in the soil is almost entirely associated with minerals.
Studying samples from China and Puerto Rico, the team found that mineral interactions rather than microbial activity was influencing carbon and nitrogen storage levels.
(Source: Washington State Univ., Science Alert, 11 Nov., 2017) Contact: Washington State University, Marc Kramer, email@example.com, //labs.wsu.edu/kramerlab/marc-g-kramer
More Low-Carbon Energy News Soil Carbon, Carbon Sink, CO2, Carbon Dioxice,
In addition to the ignition of fossil fuels, an extremely powerful El Nino event -- a natural phenomenon that is exacerbated by man-made climate change -- is contributing to the high greenhouse gas levels. El Nino restricts the ability of plants to absorb CO2 whenever it causes extensive droughts. Normally, much of this excess carbon would be absorbed by the oceans -- the planet's major carbon sink.
Measurements taken in 51 different countries revealed that 2016's increased CO2 levels was 50 pct higher than the average of the past 10 years.
"The rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past 70 years is nearly 100 times larger than that at the end of the last ice age," the report claims.
(Source: World Meteorological Organization, BBC News, Various Others, 31 Oct., 2017) Contact: World Meteorological Organization, www.wmo.int
More Low-Carbon Energy News , CO2, Methane, GHGs, Climate Change, Carbon Emissions, CO2, Global Warming,
The study bolsters a growing consensus that tropical forests are drying out or being cleared, burned and logged so fast that they now emit more carbon than they sequester. Whereas earlier estimates based on measurements of atmospheric carbon flows suggested that tropical forests might be carbon neutral or even a net sink, more-recent studies -- including ones based on data from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite -- agree broadly with this recent paper, according to David Schimel, an ecologist at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Schimel suspects that human activities such as starting fires and natural factors including droughts have severly hindered tropical forests' carbon storage capability.
The study estimates that the world's tropical forests release approximately 425 million tpy of carbon -- equivalent to roughly 5 pct of the globe's annual fossil-fuel emissions and about five times more than estimated in 2011.
(Source: NASA JPL, Nature, 29 Sept., 2017) Contact: NASA JPL, David Schimel, (818) 354-4321, www.jpl.nasa.gov
More Low-Carbon Energy News NASA JPL, Carbon Emissions, Carbon Sink,
The EU has a target to cut emissions by 40 pct by 2030 compared to 1990 levels, and forests acting as "carbon sinks" removing more than 400 Mt CO2 from the atmosphere annually -- equivalent to 10 pct of the EU's total greenhouse gas emissions -- is part of the EU's meeting its carbon reduction targets.
The European Commission's initial proposal for a regulation on land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) introduced a "no-debit" or zero target whereby EU countries must offset all deforestation either by equivalent reforestation or improved forest management and thus have a neutral impact on climate change. The Commission proposal also required all 28 EU states to account for the emissions produced from burning biofuels, which was not the case previously.
The MEPs have also adopted a mandatory 2000 -2012 historical baseline obliging EU countries to count all emissions coming from changes in forest management in subsequent years. This means that if a country increased its harvesting levels, the reduction in "carbon sink" capacity would be accounted as a net increase in emissions.
The MEPs also raised the upper limit for forest credits that EU countries can use to offset emissions in other types of land (wetlands, for example) from 3,5 pct to 7 pct of the total current sink capacity of forests.
(Source: European Commission, EURACTIV.com, Various Others 14 Sept., 2017) Contact: European Commission, ec.europa.eu/commission
More Low-Carbon Energy News European Commission, Carbon Sink, Forest Carbon, CO2, Carbon Emissions,
The project is one of 20 supported by the $27 million Canadian Federal Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program, a partnership with universities and conservation groups across Canada. The program supports research into greenhouse gas mitigation practices and technologies that can be adopted on the farm.
The East Prince Agri-Environment Association is a group of 12 farm families that came together in 2015 to explore ways of building a more sustainable and environmentally-friendly agriculture industry. (Source: CBC, 30 Aug., 2017) Contact: Agriculture Canada
Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program, www.agr.gc.ca
More Low-Carbon Energy News Greenhouse Gas, Carbon Sink, Climate Change Mitigation, Carbon Storage,
The study aims to determine the feasibility of reproducing and expanding other, similar urban programs across the state.
The city previously considered the sequestration impact of its parks and forests, but similar forest management proposals have focused largely on erosion control and windbreaks rather than the benefits of carbon sinks. (Source: Buena Vista Department of the Environment,
Contact: Urban Permaculture Institute , www.upisf.com; Buena Vista Department of the Environment, www.doe.gov.bz/index.php/component/tags/tag/28-buena-vista
More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Sequestration, Carbon Sink,